Evolution Hoax

Rudun Juyin Halitta

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Babi Na 4 - Daftarin Burbushin Halittu Ya Karyata Juyin Halitta

Kamar yadda ka’idar juyin halitta ta fada, kowane jinsin halitta yana tasowa ne daga jinsin kakanninsa. Daga baya sai ya rikide zuwa wata nau’in halitta kuma duk sauran halittu ta wannan hanaya suka kasance. Ka’idar tace, wannan tsarin rikidewa ya faro ne sannu-sannu shekaru miliyoyi masu yawa.

Rayayyun Burbushin Halittu

Ka'idar juyin halitta yai da'awar cewa jinsuna suna cigaba da rikidewa zuwa wasu jinsunan. Amma da muka kwatanta rayayyunsu da burbushinsu, munga cewar duk shekarun nan miliyoyi basu canza ba. Wannan hujja ce a bayyane da take karyata da'awar masana juyin halitta.

Rayayyen kudan zuma bashi da bambanci da burbushinHalittarsa, wanda yayi shekaru miliyoyi.

Burbushin kwaro mai manyan fuka-fukai wanda ya shekara Miliyan 135 bashi da maraba da dan 'uwansa na yau.

Idan muka kwatanta burbushin tururuwar data shekara Miliyan 100 da kuma tururuwar wannan zamani ya Bayyana a sarari cewa tururuwai basu da wani tarihin Jujjuyawar halittarsu.

ringa balığı, balık ringa balığı, fosil

Herring

 
deniz kestanesi, deniz canlıları  deniz kestanesi, fosil

Sea Urchin

 
sekoya yaprağı, yaprak sekoya yaprağı, fosil

Sequoia Leaf

 
buğday biti, böcek buğday biti, amber

Veevil

 
 güneş balığı, balık güneş balığı, fosil

Sun Fish

 
tavşan, sevimli canlılar  tavşan, fosil

Juvenile Rabbit

 

Idan haka ne, to kuwa da yakamata ace an samu wasu tsaka-tsakin halittu sun rayu tsawon wannan lokaci.

Misali, kamar su rabi kifi - rabi dabba mai kafafu yaci ace sun taba rayuwa, wadanda suke da sifar dabba mai kafafu sannan ga nasu na kifaye a hade. Ko kuma ace an taba samun rabi tsuntsu-rabi dabba mai kafafu, wadanda suka hade sifofin biyu. Masanan suna daukar wadannan kirkirarrun halittu, wadanda sukayi imanin cewa sun taba rayuwa, a matsayin “tsaka-tsakin yanayi”.

Idan dai wadannan dabbobi sun taba rayuwa, lallai yakamata a samu miliyoyi da biliyoyinsu a yawa da nau’ukansu. Mafi mahimmanci, ragowar wadannan bakin halittu yaci ace an samu burbushinsu. Yawan wadannan tsaka-tsakin yanayi shine ma yafi jinsin dabbobi na yanzu yawa kuma a samu ragowarsu a ko’ina a fadin duniya. A litttafin The Origin Of Species, Darwin ya bayyana cewa:

Idan ka’idata gaskiya ce, tsaka-tsakin jinsuna marasa adadi, da suke alaka da sauran jinsunan dake rukuni guda tare lallai da sun wanzu…kuma alamun wanzuwarsu a can baya sun tabbata ne kadai raowar burbushinsu.23

Shi kansa Darwin yana cike da sanin cewar babu cigaban yanayin. Fatansa ne dai ace nan gaba su samu. Duk da wannan fata nasa, ya gano cewa babban abinda ciwa ka’idarsa tuwo a kwarya shine tsaka-tsakin yanayi. Saboda haka ne a littafinsa The Origin Of Species ya rubuta a cikin babin “Matsalolin Ka’idar (Difficulties of the Theory):

…Me yasa, idan wasu jinsuna sun fito daga tsatson wasu jinsunan bisa kyawun mataki, shin bamu gani a ko’ina bane bazuwar tsaka-tsakin yanayi ba? Me yasa tsarin yanayi bai rikice ba, maimakon jinsin halitta, kamar yadda muke ganinsu, a tsare?...Amma, wannan bazuwar cigaban yanayi ya kamata ace ya wanzu, me yasa bamu gansu da yawa a ban kasa ba?...Amma a cikin tsaka-tsakin nahiya, mai tsaka-tsakin yanayin rayuwa, me yasa bamu samu mafi kusancin alaka da tsaka-tsakin jinsuna ba? Wannan matsala ta dade tana cimin tuwo a kwarya.24

Gwauron bayanin da Darwin ya iya yi don ya kara da kalubalen da akayi masa shine wai burbushin halittu da ya bayyana bashi da inganci. Yayi ikirarin cewa idan aka yi nazarin burbushin halittun sosai, za’a samo abubuwan da ba’a gano ba.

Masu yarda da da’awar Darwin, wato masana juyin halitta, tun tsakiyar karni na 19 suka yunkura wajen hake-haken nemo burbushin halittu ko’ina a fadin duniya. Duk da wannan yunkurin nasu, babu wani tsarin tsaka-tsakin yanayi da suka gano. Dukkanin burbushin halittun da aka tono sun nuna sabanin abinda masana juyin halitta suka yi imani akai cewa rayuwa ta samu aban kasa kwatsam da cikakkiyar sifa. Wajen kokarin tabbatar da ka'idarsu sai suka afka cikin rushe tsarinnasu.

Shahararren bature masanin binciken burbushin halittu, Derek V. Ager, ya yarda da wannan magana duk da cewar shima masanin juyin halitta ne:

Ya bayyana cewa idan zamu yi nazari sosai akan burbushin halittu, ya kasance a matakin tsarukansu ko jinsuna, zamu gano sashe guda akan wani sashe.25

Wani daga cikin masanan Mark Czarnecki shima yayi sharhi kamar haka:

Wata babbar matsalar dake tattare da tabbatar da hujjar ka'idar shine daftarin burbushin halittu; wato ragowar kasusuwan jinsunan da aka taskace a tsarin ilmin tarihin kasa. Wannnan daftari bai taba bayyana samfurin tsaka-tsakin tsarin halitta ba-sai dai ma su jinsunan su bayyana kuma sub ace zuwa wanilokaci, wannan ya ture wasu daga masana halitta akan takkadamarsu cewa kowane jinsi dai Ubangiji ne ya haliccesu.26

Wadannan ratattaki a daftarin ba zai bayyanu ta fadin cewa wai ba'a samu isassun bayanai ba don haka wata rana zasu bayyana. Masanin binciken burbushin halittu dan Amurka R. Wesson ya ambata a littafinsa 'Beyond Natural Selection', wanda aka buga a 1991, cewa "Ratattaki a daftarin gaskiya ne. kuma mai ban mamaki."

Koda yake, ratattaki a daftarin gaskiya ne. kasancewar babu wani daftari dangane da kowane irin sashe mai muhimmanci abin mamaki ne. Yawanci jinsuna basa canzawa, ko ace sun kusa, har tsawon wani lokaci, yawancin jinsuna basu taba nuna juyin halitta a cikin nau’in iyalinsu izuwa sabon jinsuna ko danginsu amma maye wani da wani jinsin, kuma canzawarsu baya tasirantuwa a yawa ko kadan.27

Rayuwa ta fara ne aban kasa kwatsam da cikakken tsari. Idan aka yi nazarin sasannin duwatsu da burbushin halitta, za'aga cewa dukkan kwayoyin halitta sun bayyana tare. Mafi dadewar sashen dutsen da aka samu burbushin halitta a jiki shine zamanin Cambrian, mai kimanin shekaru miliyan 500-550.

Halittun da aka samu a jikin sassan duwatsun tun zamanin Cambrian suke - kuma basu da magabata. Burbushin da aka samu a duwatsun zamanin Cambrian na Tana ne, Dadadden kwaro (Trilobite), Dabbar ruwa (Sponges), Gwazarma (earthworm), Kifi (Jellyfish), Dorinar ruwa(Sea hedgehogs), da wadansu kwarukan. Wadannan tarin halittun da suke da cakuduwar halittu daban-daban a jikinsu su wanzu haka nan, kuma faruwarsu mu'jiza ce da suke kira "Cambrian Explosion" wato "Bayyanar Zamanin Cambrian" a fannin ilmin binciken kasa.

Mafi yawancin alamun da aka samu a cikin duuwatsun sune da siffofi kamarsu idanu,fuka-fukai, da dai sauran gabban jikinsu wanda bashi da bambanci da irinsu na yau. Misali, sifar idanun kwaro 'trilobite' sifa ce mai cike da ado na al'ajabi. David Raup, wani farfesa a fannin binciken kasa a jami'o'in Harvard,Rochester da Chicago, yana cewa; "adon jikin kwaro trilobite da yake amfani dashi zai zamanto sai an sami wani kwararren injiniya sannan ya iya yin irinsa a yau.28

Wadannan halittu sun wanzu ne kwatsam kuma da cikakkiyar halittarsu ba tare da wata alaka ko cigaban yanayi tsakaninsu ba kuma halitta daya, wadda itace kadai halittar da ta wanzu kafinsu.

Richard Monasterksy, editan Mujallar Earth Sciences, daya ce daga shahararrun mujallun masana juyin halitta, sunyi rubuce-rubuce akan "Bayyanar Cambrian" wanda yazo ya bawa masanan mamaki:

Shekaru miliyan dari biyar da suka shude, cikakkiyar sifofin dabbobi da muke gani yau sun bayyana ne kwatsam. Wannan lokaci, tun daga farkon duniya a zamanin Cambrian, shekaru miliyan 550 da suka shude, shine ya fito da bayyanar juyin halittar da ya cika tekuna dahailttun farko a duniya. Manyan dabbobin da muka sani suma tun farkon zamanin Cambrian suke kuma kamar yadda suke a rarrabe a yau haka ma a wancan lokacin.29

Zuzzurfan binciken da aka yi a bayyanar Cambrian ya nuna kasaitaccen rudanin da ya haifarwa ka'idar juyin halitta. Binciken da akayi na kwana-kwanan nan ya nuna cewa dukkanin dabbobin da suka rarrabe jinsunansu, sun bayyana a zamanin Cambrian. Wata kasida da aka buga a Mujallar Kimiyya (Science) a shekara ta 2001 tace:

"Farkon zamanin Cambrian, shekaru miliyan 550 da suka shude, sun ga bayyanar daftarin burbushin halittu kwatsam a kusan dukkanin jinsunan dabbobi (phyla) wanda suka mamaye kimiyyar yau."30

Har ila yau wannan kasida tayi tsakoci akan cewar wannnan cikakkiyar siffa da rabe-raben dake tsakanin jinsuna anyi bayaninsu abisa ka'idar juyin halitta, gidajen kasusuwan burbushin halittu

Idon Kwaro Trilobite
 trilobit,trilobit gözü

Dadaddan kwaron da ya bayyana a zamanin cambrian yana da cikak-kiyar tsarin halittar ido.yana dau-ke da miliyoyin sakar zuma kananatare da kwayar ido guda biyu, wan-nan ido "yana da cikakken tsari wanda yake bukatar kwararren injiniya a fannin kere-kere don ya bunkasa irinsa a yau, "a kalmomin David Raup, farfesa a fanninbinciken kasa.Wannan idon ya bayyana a kyakkyawan tsari shekaru miliyan 530 da suka shude.

Babu shakka, bayyanar wannan tsari mai ban al'ajabi ba zai bayyana ta juyin halitta ba kuma gashi yayi bayanin hakikanin halitta. Bayan haka,tsarin idon dadadden kwaro (trilobite)mai zanen sakar zuma ya kai harizuwazamaninmu na yau ba tare da wani canji ba.Wasu kwari kamar kudan zuma da kwari kamar kudan zuma da wasu kwari masu manyanfuka-fukai suma suna da ido iri-iri daya da trilobite*.Wannan yanayi ya Karyata manufofin juyin halittada cewa halittu masu rai sun wanzu ne daga dadadden tsari zuwa wayayyen tsari.

 (*) R.L.Gregory, Eye and Brain: The Physiology of Seeing, Oxford University Press, 1995, p.31

A. The Eye of Trilobite

Burbushin halittu ya tabbatar da cewa babu wani cigaban yanayi da ya wanzu, babu wani juyin halitta da ya taba samuwa kuma dukkanin jinsunan halittu an haliccesu ne daban-daban a kyakkyawar siffarsu.

wanda suke nuna cigaban canje-canjen halitta sunci ace sun bayyana, amma har yanzu ba'a tabbatar da yiyuwar hakan ba.

Wannan bambancin juyin halittar da shudewarsa, shima ya zama tilas a tabbatar da tarihinsa ko asalin rabe-raben da ba'a samu burbushinsu ba. Haka kuma, tsohon bincike dake tattare a cikin taswirar manyan halittun dabbobi sun tabbatar cewa kwaro trilobite, kamar kwaro eucrustaceans, (kwari masu zama akan korayen bishiyoyi) suna zama jikin bishiyoyin kamar wani a jikin bishiyar. Amma burbushin wadannan magabatan kwarika sun bata…koda an samo wata tsohuwar shaida dake nuna hakan, ya zama kalubale yin bayani akan yadda wasu dabbobin basu kara girman jiki ko su samo wasu sifofi na kariya a cikin kankanin lokaci a zamanin Cambrian ba.31

Yadda duniya ta bayyana tare da wanzuwar mafi yawa daga rabe-raben halittu kwatsam da kuma bambancin halittu ba tare da magabata daya ba wata tambaya ce wadda har yanzu masana juyin halitta suka kasa amsawa.Masani akan nazarin dabbobi Richard Dawkins, daya ne daga cikin 'yan gaba-gaba a wajen yada ilmin juyin halitta a fadin duniya, yayi gamsashshen bayani dake rushe asali akan wata takaddama dangane da akidar da yake karewa.

Misali akan fuskokin duwatsu na zamanin Cambrian, kimanin shekaru miliyan 600, sune mafi dadewa kuma a jikinsu ne muka samu mafi yawancin jinsunan dabbobi masu kafafuwa hudu. Kuma muka samu da yawansu sun kai matukar cigaban yanayin juyin halitta, shine karon farko da suka bayyana. Kai kace manna su akai a jiki, amma kuma babuwani tarihi akan haka. Abinda za'a iya cewa, wannan bayyanar tasu ta kayatar da masana halittu.32

Interesting Spines
hallucigenia, diken kambriyen,diken fosili

One of the creatures that suddenly emerged in the Cambrian Age is Hallucigenia (above, left). This and many other Cambrian fossils have hard, sharp spines to protect them from attack. One thing that evolutionists cannot account for is how these creatures should have such an effective defense system when there were no predators around. The lack of predators makes it impossible to explain these spines in terms of natural selection.

Burbushin halittu ya tabbatar da cewa babu wani cigaban yanayi da ya wanzu, babu wani juyin halitta da ya taba samuwa kuma dukkanin jinsunan halittu an haliccesu ne daban-daban a kyakkyawar siffarsu.

Kamar yadda Dawkins yayi ikirari da kansa, bayyanar zamanin cambrian kwakkwarar hujja ce ta halitta, domin halitta ita ce kadai hanyar da za'a iya bayanin yadda aka halicci rayuwa aban kasa da cikakkiyar sifa. Douglas Futuyma, wani shahararen masanin juyin halittar dabbobi shima ya tabbatar da wannan hujja da cewa;"kodai halittun sun bayyana aban kasa da cikakkiyar sifa ko kuma a'a. Idan basu bayyana haka ba, to lallai kuwa sun bunkasa ne daga wasu jinsuna ta hanyar juyin halitta. Idan kuma sun bayyana ne a cikakkiyar sifa, to lallai kuwa ababan halitta ne daga wani kasaitaccen gwanin iya hallitta."33

Shima Darwin ya yarda da yiwuwar hakan yayin da ya rubuta cewa;"Idan dai yawancin jinsuna, wadanda suke danign halitta daya, sun fara rayuwa a lokaci daya, lallai hujjar zata illata ka'idar...tare da sassaukan canji ta hanyar zabin yanayi."34

Ba komai bane zamanin cambrian,sai "illa mai rushe" Darwin. Wannan shine dalilin da ya sa ikirarin rashin alakantuwarsu a yayin da ya bayyana zamanin cambrian da cewa "mai ban takaici (da kunyata) ga Darwin, har yanzu wannan abu yana ci mana tuwo a kwarya."35

Kamar yadda akan iya gani, daftarin burbushin halitta ya nuna cewar halittu masu rai basu wanzu daga dadadden tsari zuwa wayayye ba, amma kwatsam kuma a kyakkyawan tsari. A takaice dai, halittu masu rai basu wanzu ta hanyar juyin halitta ba, sai dai halittarsu aka yi.

Bambancin Kwayoyin Halittu Ya Jefa Zamanin Cambrian A Rudani.

Wata hujja data jefa masana juyin halitta cikin zurfin rudani akan bayyanar zamanin cambrian shine bambanci tsakanin halittu.sakamakon bincike akan bambancin ya nuna halittun dabbobi suna da "alaka ta kud-da-kud" inji masanan, sai kwanan nan aka gano bambanci ta hanyar halittar jini, inda ya sanya "tsaka-tsakin tsari" cikin jarrabawa, wanda ya wanzu a rubuce kawai, da gagarumin rushewa. Wata kasida da aka buga a wata gabatarwar taron cibiyar kimiyya ta kasa (National Academy of Sciences) a shekara ta 2000 ya bada rahoton cewa jigidar halittar DNA da aka yi nazari ya canza matsayin da ake "tsaka-tsakin tsari" dashi a baya:

Tsarin jigidar halittar DNA ya bada sabuwar fassara game da bishiyar halittun dabbobi masu girma.Bambancin jinsinsu da ake dauka yana wakiltar matakai na cika a tsarin bishiyar canza halitta wanda ya saukar da mafi kololuwar matsayi a cikin bishiyar.Babu juyin halitta tattare a ganyeyyakin "tsaka-tsakin"kuma ya tilasta mana sake tunani akan halittar jini mai cika ta bangare biyu....36

A wannan kasida dai, marubuta daga cikin masanan sun rubuta cewa wasu nau'ukan jinsuna da aka dauka a matsayin "tsaka-tsakin" danginsu kamarsu dabbar ruwa(sponge), nau'in dabba 'Cnidarian', da ctenophores, ba zata yiwu a daukesu hakan ba, saboda sabon sakamakon binciken da aka samu akan halittar jini, kuma har sun "karaya" wajen gina bishiyar iyalin juyin halitta:

"Sabon tsarin bishiyar iyalin halittun dabbobi yana da muhimman abubuwan dake kunshe a ciki. Mafi muhimmanci daga ciki shine bacewar "tsaka-tsaki" daga kwarin spounges,cnidarian,ctenophores,da karshen magabatansu ko "urbilateria"...Abin dubawa shine akwai rata mai girma a gabatar da urbilateria mun fitar da rai, akan tsarin tsohuwar fahimtar juyin halitta, wajen sake farfado da tsarin halittar rayuwar dabbobi "wadanda suke gabat lokaci guda" ta hanyar sanya wani yanayi da zai daukaka karuwar fadadarsu akan tsohuwar nasabarsu. 37

 

Footnotes

23 Charles Darwin, The Origin of Species: A Facsimile of the First Edition, Harvard University Press, 1964, sh. 179.

24 Ibid, sh. 172, 280.

25 Derek V. Ager, "The Nature of the Fossil Record", Proceedings of the British Geological Association, Vol 87, 1976, sh. 133.

26 Mark Czarnecki, "The Revival of the Creationist Crusade", MacLean's, January 19, 1981, sh. 56.

27 R. Wesson, Beyond Natural Selection, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, 1991, sh. 45

28 David Raup, "Conflicts Between Darwin and Paleontology", Bulletin, Field Museum of Natural History, Vol 50, January 1979, sh. 24.

29 Richard Monastersky, "Mysteries of the Orient", Discover, April 1993, sh. 40.

30 Richard Fortey, "The Cambrian Explosion Exploded?", Science, vol 293, No 5529, 20 July 2001, sh. 438-439.

31 Ibid.

32 Richard Dawkins, The Blind Watchmaker, London: W. W. Norton 1986, p. 229.

33 Douglas J. Futuyma, Science on Trial, New York: Pantheon Books, 1983, p. 197.

34 Charles Darwin, The Origin of Species: A Facsimile of the First Edition, Harvard University Press, 1964, p. 302.

35 Stefan Bengston, Nature, Vol. 345, 1990, sh. 765.

36 The New Animal Phylogeny: Reliability And Implications, Proc. of Nat. Aca. of Sci., 25 April 2000, vol 97, No 9, sh. 4453-4456.

37 Ibid.

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