Evolution Hoax

Rudun Juyin Halitta

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Babi Na 5 - Tatsuniyar Rikidar Ruwa Zuwa Kasa

Masana juyin halitta sun yarda da cewa halittun ruwa wadanda suka bayyana a zamanin cambrian sun fara wanzuwa ne a sifar kifi a miliyoyin shekarun da suka shude.Bayan haka, kamar yadda ya kasance halittu a zamanin cambrian basu da magabata, haka ma babu wata alaka da take nuna rikidarsu lokaci bayan lokaci tsakanin halittun kasa da kifi.Yana da kyau a fahimta babu wasu sifofi da suke dangantasu.Dabbobi masu kafafuwa suna da tsarin halittar jiki, haka kifi yana da nasa.Yakamata ace "juyin halitta" ya dauki biliyoyin matakai wanda zai cika kuma aga biliyoyin tsaka-tsakin halittun dake nuna haka.

transition_from_water_to_land_lie_en

A kwatancen tatsuniyar "daga ruwa zuwa kasa", wasu kifaye sun ga cewar akwai yiwuwar ta fito daga ruwa zuwa ban kasa saboda matsalolin ciyarwa. Wannan da'awa ta samu "goyon baya" daga irin wadan- nan zane-zanen karya.

Masanan sun yi shekaru 140 suna yin haka don tono burbushin halittar dake nuna wadancan tsarukan.Sun gano miliyoyin kasusuwan burbushin halittun kasa da kifaye; amma har yanzu basu samu ko daya, da yake nuna tsaka-tsaki (wato rabi kifi-rabi dabba) ba.

Masanin binciken burbushin halittu, Gerald T. Todd ya amsa wannan batu a cikin kasidarsa mai taken "Evolution of the Lung and the origin of Bony fishes."

Dukkanin bangarori uku na kifaye da aka samu a daftarin burbushin halittu sun bayyana a kusan lokaci daya.Sun sha bamban ta kowace fuska, kuma gashi suna da girman jiki.

Ta ina suka fara wanzuwa? Kuma ta kaka suka samo manyan gabbai? Kuma menene yasa ba'a gano asalinsu, ko tsaka-tsakin siffarsu ba? 38

A kwatancen tatsuniyar "daga ruwa zuwa kasa", wasu kifaye sun ga cewar akwai yiwuwar ta fito daga ruwa zuwa ban kasa saboda matsalolin ciyarwa. Wannan da'awa ta samu "goyon baya" daga irin wadan- nan zane-zanen karya.

Tatsuniyar juyin halitta ta cigaba da kalubalantar cewa dai kifi ya faro ne daga kwaro mai kasusuwa izuwa dabba mai kafafuwa.Amma babu gamsashshiyar hujja akan haka.Babu ma koda burbushin halittar data taba wanzuwa.Wannan magana ta samu gasgatuwa daga wani shahararren masanin juyin halitta mai fada aji, Robert L. Carrol, mawallafin Vertebrate Paleontology and Evolution, da yake cewa: "Bamu da tsaka-tsakin burbushin halitta tsakanin magabacin kifi da kuma farkon halittar dabba mai kafafuwa."39 Masana burbushin halittu su biyu, Colbert da Morales, sunyi tsokaci akan kashe-kashen halittu masu kafafu gida uku-kwado, kifi salaman da caecillian:

Babu wata hujja akan daya daga halittun ruwa wadanda za'a yi zatonsu a wata magabaciyar halitta guda.Tsofaffin kwadin da aka fi sani da kifi salaman da caecillains suna diban kama ta hanyoyin rayuwar magabatnsu.40

coelacanth, fosil coelacanth, balıkçılar canlı coelacanth, canlı balık

Burbushin coelacanth mai shekaru miliyan 410. Masana juyin halitta sunyi da'awar cewa wai tsaka-tsakin yanayi ne dake wakiltar rikidar halittar ruwa zuwa ban kasa.

Rayayyun misalan kifi an kama su da yawa tun 1938, tare da bada kyakkyawan misali game da jita-jitar da masanan suka shigar da kansu.

Sai bayan kimanin shekaru hamsin da suka shude ne, masanan suka yi zaton cewa wannan halitta ta wanzu.Wannan kifi da ake kira coelacanth, wanda ake kiyasin shekarunsa miliyan 410, an gabatar dashi a matsayin tsaka-tsakin sifa da ke dauke da kasusuwa irin na da, da kwakwalwa irin ta yanzu da kuma kayan hanji da jijiyoyi wanda zasu iya aiki aban kasa, har da kuma gabobin da ka iya taimakwa wajen yin tafiya. Wadannan bayanai sun samu karbuwa a matsayin wata hujja wadda ba za'a iya juyar da ita ba a tsakanin masana kimiyya, har izuwa 1930.An gabatar da kifi coelacanth a matsayin tsaka-tsakin sifa ta gaskiya wadda ta tabbatr da hujjar rikidar halittar ruwa zuwa kasa.

Kunkuru Kullum A Kunkurunsa Yake.
 kaplumbağa fosili, fosil

Kamar yadda ka'idar juyin halitta ta gaza bada bayanin sasannin Halittu kamar su kifi, da dabbobi masu rarrafe, ballantana ma ace ta iya yin bayanai akan asalin jinsunan wadannan sassa. misali, kunkuru, wanda halitta ce mai rarrafe, kawai ace ta bayyana a daftarin burbushin halittu tare da kokon bayansa haka nan. Bari mu ciro magana daga zantuttukan masana juyin halitta: "...a daidai tsakiyar zamanin Triassic(kimanin shekaru 175,000,000 da suka shude)irin halittar kunkuru sun yawaita kuma suna dauke da duk siffofi da aka sanshi. Alakarsu tsakanin kunkuru da cytlosaur wadda daga ita ne aka samu halittar kunkuru kusan babu irinsu."(EncyclopaediaBrittanica, 1971, v.22p.418)

Babu wani bambanci tsakanin dadaddiyar halittar kunkuru data yanzu.mafi sauki ace, kunkuru dai bai "wanzu ta juyin halitta ba, suna nan a matsayin kunkuru kamar yadda aka haliccesu.

Burbushin kunkuru mai shekaru miliyan 100. Bashi da bambanci da na yanzu.
(The Dawn of Life, Orbis Pub., London 1972)

Bayan haka a ranar 22 ga watan Disamba, 1938, bincike mai ban sha’awa ya gano dangin kifi coelacanth a tekun Indiya, wanda da aka gabatar da shi a matsayin tsaka-tsakin sifa wadanda suka gushe shekaru miliyan saba’in da suka shude. Gano rayayyiyar wannan halitta da aka yi ya jefa masana cikin damuwa, cike da mamaki. Masanin burbushin halitta J.L.B. Smith yace ba zai zama yayi mamaki ba idan da zai ga rayayyen halittar dinosaur.41A shekarun da suka wuce, an kama kifi coelacanth guda 200 a wurare daban-daban a fadin duniya.

Rayayyun coelacanth sun nuna karara irin nisan dam asana juyin halitta suka yi wajen kirkirar tatsuniyoyinsu, sabanin da’awarsu, coelacanth ya tabbata bashi da huhun da ballantana babbar kwakwalwa. Gabar da masanan suka gabatar a matsayin huhun da, an gano cewar ba komai bane illa kunzumin yawu ne. 42 bayan haka, an gabatar da coelacanth ne a matsayin” dabba mai kokarin yin rarrafe ta fito daga ruwa zuwa ban kasa”, a hakikani kuwa kifi ne dake zaune can karkashin teku kuma bai taba saman ruwa da akalla mita 180 ba.43

Abinda Yasa Rikidar Halittun Ruwa Zuwa Halittun Kasa Ba Zata Yiwu Ba

Masana juyin halitta sun yi da'awar cewa wata rana, jinsin dake rayuwa a ruwa ya fito zuwa ban kasa kuma daga nan ne ya rikide izuwa jinsin dake rayuwa aban kasa.

Akwai hujjoji masu yawa dake nuna rashin yiyuwar afkuwar haka:

1. Nauyin jikinsu:

halittun dake rayuwa a cikin ruwa basu da matsalar daukar nauyin jikinsu.Haka kuma, halittun dake rayuwa aban kasa yawancinsu suna daukar kashi(40%) arba'in cikin dari na kuzarin daka iya daukar jikinasu zuwa ko'ina, saboda haka kaga halittun dake neman rikida zuwa kasa sai sun samo sababbin gabobi da kasusuwan da (!) zasu iya daukar nauyin kuzarin da zai sa rayuwarsu ta daidai ta, wanda kuma mawuyaci ne maye gurbi dake tattare dasu ya samar da hakan.

2. Jure zafi:

a kasa, hucin zafi ko sanyi na saurin canzawa da bazuwa mai fadi.Halittun kasa na dauke da kwayoyi a jikinsu da zasu iya jure karfin yanayin.haka kuma, a ruwa,hucin zafi ko sanyi baya saurin canzawa kuma baya fadada. Saboda haka halittar dake rayuwar a irin wannan yanayi na cikin ruwa suna bukatar sunadarai na kariya daga yanayin dake canzawa kuma aban kasa, gwargwado.Abu ne daya sabawa hankali ayi da'awar kifi na dauke da wadannan sunadarai ta hanyar bazuwar maye gurbi a yayin da suka hau doron kasa.

3. Amfani da ruwa:

Muhimmi wajen gina abinci, ruwa har da jikakkiyar iska ko kasa abubuwa ne da suke amfani dasu da riritawa saboda karancin hanyar samun ruwa akan kasa.Misali, sai an halicci fata yadda zata rika fitar da ruwa zuwa wani mikidari tare da kiyayewa daga fitarsa.Saboda haka, halittun kasa zasu samu gabar jin kishirwa, wadda halittun ruwa basu da ita.Bayan haka, fitar jikin dabbobin ruwa ba daidai yake da dabbobin da ba'a ruwa suke ba.

4. K'oda:

halittun ruwa na da sassaukar hanyar fitar da datti daga jikinsu, musamman sunadarin ammonia, ta hanyar tace su tunda mazaunisu cike yake da ruwa.A kasa kuwa, sai an takaita amfani da ruwa.Wannan shine yasa wadannan halittu suke da tsarin koda.Madallah da samuwar koda, sunadarin ammonia na taruwa ne anan kuma ya canza zuwa sunadarin urea(fitsari) da kuma karancin ruwan da take amfani dashi yayin fitarwa.kari akan haka, ana bukatar sababbin gabban da zasu samarwa da koda ta rika aiki sosai.A takaice idan anan son rikidar halittar ruwa zuwa ta kasa ta yiwu daidai da minti guda a wajen ruwa ba.Idan ana son rayuwarsu aban kasa, to sai sun samu kyakkywan huhu shima a ganshi kwatsam.

Abu ne mawuyaci ace dukkan wadannan canje-canje zasu afku a tsarin halittarsu a lokaci guda kuma kwatsam.

5. Tsarin Numfashi:

Kifi yana “Numfashi” yayin da ya sheik iskar oxygen wadda ke narkewa a cikin ruwa, Hanyar ta itace gefen kayoyin dake daf da fuskarsu. Ba zasu taba iya rayuwa dai dai da wasu ‘yan mintina ba a wajen ruwa. Idan ana son su rayu a ban kasa, dole sai sun samu ingataccen huhun da zai iya rike su shima kwatsam.

Saboda haka abu ne mawuyaci dukkanin wadannan ace sun kawo canji a wadannan gabbai a lokaci guda kuma kwatsam

 

Footnotes

38 Gerald T. Todd, "Evolution of the Lung and the Origin of Bony Fishes: A Casual Relationship", American Zoologist, Vol 26, No. 4, 1980, sh. 757.

39 R. L. Carroll, Vertebrate Paleontology and Evolution, New York: W. H. Freeman and Co. 1988, sh. 4.

40 Edwin H. Colbert, M. Morales, Evolution of the Vertebrates, New York: John Wiley and Sons, 1991, sh. 99.

41 Jean-Jacques Hublin, The Hamlyn Encyclopædia of Prehistoric Animals, New York: The Hamlyn Publishing Group Ltd., 1984, sh. 120.

42 Jacques Millot, "The Coelacanth", Scientific American, Vol 193, December 1955, sh. 39.

43 Bilim ve Teknik Magazine, November 1998, No: 372, sh. 21.

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