Evolution Hoax

Rudun Juyin Halitta

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Babi Na 6 - Asalin Halittar Tsuntsaye Da Dabbobi Masu Shayarwa

A fadar ka'idar juyin halitta, asalin rayuwa ta fara ne daga yuwa sannan ta dawo akan kasa daga dabbobi masu rarrafe. Wannan tatsuniya tasu ta cigaba da dorarwa cewar su wadannan halittu masu rarrafe sun rikida zuwa halittu masu tafiya a doron kasa kawai.Wannan tatsuniya bata da tushe, saboda bambancin da dabbobin suke dauke dasu na zahiri. Misali, kwan dabbobi masu zama a ruwa, an haliccesu ne da tsari daban da kwan halittu masu rarrafe a doron kasa. A"mataki-mataki na juyin halittun ruwa ba abin kamawa bane, saboda abu ne mawuyaci ga jinsinansu rayuwa ba tare da kyankyasar kwai ba.Haka kuma, kamar yadda aka sani, babu wata shaida da take nuna tsaka-tsakin sifar dake nuna alakar halittar ruwa data ban kasa. Masanin burbushin juyin halitta kuma mai fada aji akan fannin binciken burbushin halittu masu rayuwa cikin ruwa, Robert L. Carrol ya zama lallai da ya amince yana cewa "halittu masu rayuwa a ruwa suna da bambanci da masu rarrafe aban kasa kuma an ka sa gano magabatansu, har yanzu."44

Kasusuwan Hakarkari Na Musamman Ga Tsuntsaye

Halittar tsuntsaye daban take da halittar dabbobi masu shayarwa, wadanda akai zaton sune magabatansu. kasusuwan hakarkarin tsuntsaye suna aiki ne iri daban dana dabbobi masu rayuwa aban kasa. Dabbobin kasa suna numfasawa a ciki da waje ta mazurarin iska daya.Amma a tsuntsaye, abin ba haka yake ba, iska tana shiga cikin kasusuwan hakar-kari ne daga gaba, ya fita ta baya.Wannan mabanbancin "tsari" an yi ne musamman saboda tsuntsaye, wanda yake bukatar isashshen sunadarin oxygen a yayin tashi.yana da wuya ace wannan tsarin halitta wai ya samo asali daga kasusuwan hakar-karin dabba mai rarrafe.

 omurgalı akciğeri, kuş akciğeri

1. Reptile Lung,
a. Alveol, b. Air, c. Bronchia,

2.Avian Lung
d. IN, e. Parabronchia, f. OUT

 kuş kanadı, güzel kuş  kuş kanadı, güzel kuş

Duk da haka basu hakura da gabatar da rusassun tatsuniyoyinsu ba. Har ila yau akwai matsalar sanya tashi (sama) ga wadannan halittu! Tunda a yakinin masanan wai tsuntsaye ma lallai suma samuwa suka yi, kuma halittarsu ta faro ne daga tsuntsaye, kuma har ace juyin halitta zai iya bayani akai. Da farko dai, mu duba fuka-fukai, sifar da take a jikin tsuntsaye kadai, kuma itace take barazana ga masana juyin halitta.Daya daga cikin masana juyin halitta, Engin Korur, dan Kasar Turkiyya, yayi ikirarin rashin yiyuwar juyin halittar fuka-fukai:

"Wani tafiyayyen tsarin da ido da fuka-fuki ke dauke dasu shine zasu iya aiki ne kadai idan an cika halittarsu.Ma'ana, rabi da rabin ido ba zai taba gani ba; haka ma tsuntsun dake da rabin fuka-fuki ba zai iya tashi ba.Yadda wadannan gabbai suka wanzu ya zama daya daga cikin abubuwa masu wahalar ganewa wadanda suke bukatar wayar dakai."45

Mas'alar samuwar tsarin fuka-fuki tazo ne a sakamakon rashin amsar kai kawon maye gurbi da aka samu. Babu wata hanya da za'a iya bayanin yadda kafafuwan gaba na dabbobi masu tafiya a doron kasa zasu iya canzawa su zama fuka-fukai ta hanyar hargitsa tsarin halittarsu (maye gurbi).

Haka kuma, don kawai dabbar kasa ta samu fuka-fukai ba shine yake tabbatarwa zata iya tashi ba.Dabbobin kasa basu da tsarin halittar da tsuntsaye suke tashi dasu.Misali, kasusuwan tsuntsaye basu da kauri irin na dabbobin kasa. Sannan hakarkarinsu yana aiki daban da irin dabbobi.Tafiyar da kewayar jini da halittun jikinsu ya sha bamban.Wadannan gabbai wasu rukunai ne wanda dole sai an mallakesu kamar yadda za'a mallaki fuka-fuki.Kuma samuwarsu ya zama bai daya kuma tare;ba wai su kasance suna samuwa sannu-sannu ba.Wannan shine dalilin dake tabbatar da da'awar ka'idarsu dake cewa halittun kasa sun fara samuwa ta hanyar canza halitta ta zama cikakkiyar karya.duk wadannan suna bijiro da tambaya a cikin zuciya:Mu dauka ma wannan kirkirarren labari gaskiya ne, to mene ne yasa masana juyin halitta suka samo "rabin fuka-fuki" ko mai "fuka-fuki daya" don su kare wannan labari nasu?

Wani Karin Canjin Yanayi: Archaeopteryx

archaeopteryx, ofpandasandpe

According to evolutionists, some small dinosaurs, such as Velociraptors or Dromeosaurs, evolved by acquiring wings and then starting to fly. Thus, Archæopteryx is assumed to be a transitional form that branched off from its dinosaur ancestors and started to fly for the first time. This imaginary tale appears in almost all evolutionist publications.

Masanan sun ambaci sunan wata halitta don yin martani. Wato burbushin halittar tsuntsu mai suna Archaeopteryx wanda daya ne daga cikin sanannun tsarin cigaban yanayi daga cikin kadan din da masanan suke karewa.Archaeopteryx, magabaciyar tsuntsayen zamani kamar yadda masanan suka fada, ta rayu shekaru miliyan 150 da suka shude.

Riko da ka'idarsu tayi akan cewa wasu daga kananan tsuntsaye dinosaur wadanda ake kira Velociraptor ko Dromeosaur sun wanzu ta hanyar samun fuka-fukai da kuma fara tashi sama. Amma, Archaeopteryx ana daukaeta da zama canjin yanayin dake karkatar da asalinta daga (dinosaur) magabaciyar da ta fara tashi a farkon fari.

Bayan haka, sabon nazarin da aka yi akan burbushin halittar Archaeopteryx ya nuna cewar wannan halitta bata da canjin yanayi tare da ita, illa dai wata jinsin tsuntsuwa ce wadda take dauke da tsarin halitta daban da tsuntsayen wannan zamani.

Batun da ake yi cewa Archaeopteryx wai "rabi tsuntsu ne" wadda ba zata iya tashi kamar sauran tsuntsaye ba tafi shahara tsakanin masanan kafin a dade. Rashin kasusuwan kirji wanda aka fi sani da suna sternum, a wannan halitta, ko a kalla za'a iya cewa ba kamar sauran tsuntsaye ba, wata hujja ce mai muhimmanci abar rikewa akanta cewa bata iya tashi kamar sauran.(kashin kirjin kashi ne wanda yake karkashin gabar da idan zai tashi sai ya tara karfi. A lokacinmu, ana iya ganin wannan kashin kirji a tsuntsaye masu tashi da marasa tashi, har a jikin jemagu-dabba mai haihuwa kuma da tashi wadda ta fito daga dangin halitta daban).

Bayan haka, burbushin halittar Archaeopteryx da aka gano karo na bakwai cikin shekarar 1992 ya haifar da gagarumin farin ciki tsakanin masana juyin halitta. Dalili kuwa shine, a wannan binciken ne aka gano burbushin Archaeopteryx, kuma kashin kirjin da ake zaton ya dade da bata shima suka gano cewar ya wanzu. An bayyana gano wannan bataccen burbushin halitta ne a cikin Mujallar Nature kamar haka:

Ganowar kwanan nan ta samfurin Archaeopteryx na bakwai ya adana tankwararrun siraran kasusuwan kirji wadanda aka dade ana zatonsu amma ba’a taba ajiyar su ba.Wannan yana tabbatar da irin karfin gabban tashi.46

Wannan ganowa ta rushe zaunanniyar da’awar cewa Archeaopteryx rabi tsuntsu ne wanda baya iya tashi sosai.

A daya bangaren kuwa, tsarin halittar fuka-fukan tsuntsaye ya zama wata babbar hujja da take tabbatar da cewa Archeaopteryx dai tsuntsu ne mai tashi sosai. Rashin bambancin da aka gano daga Archeaopteryx da sauran tsuntsayen zamani dangane da fuka-fuki yayi nuni da cewa dai lallai dabbar na tashi sosai.Kamar yadda masanin binciken burbushin halittu Carl O. Dunbar ya fadi, “saboda yanayin gashin fuka-fukan Archeaopteryx, ba makawa sai an saka shi a cikin rukunin tsuntsaye.” 47

Wata hujjar data bayyana daga tsarin gashin fuka-fukan Archeaopteryx shine ta samarwa jikinta kariya daga zafi. Kamar yadda aka sani, dabbobi masu kafafuwa da kuma tsuntsaye dinosaur sune yanayin gari yake shafarsu maimakon su rika jujjuya zafin jikinsu da kansu. Muhimmin aikin gashin fuka-fukan a jikin tsuntsaye shine kula da zafin jikinsu. Hujjar cewa Archeopteryx na da gashin fuka-fukai ya tabbatar gaskiya ne, cewa tsuntsu ne mai dumin jinin dake iya kula da jikinta sabanin dinosaur.

Zanen Jikin Fuka-fukin Tsuntsu

a’idar juyin halitta, wadda tayi da’awar cewa tsuntsaye sun samu daga halittar dabbobi masu rarrafe, ya kasa bayanin bambancin dake tsakanin wadannan jinsin halittu biyu. Idan muka dawo akan maganar fuka-fukansu, tsarin kasusuwan jikinsu, kasusuwan hakarkarinsu, da yadda suke jure yanayin jikinsu, tsuntsaye daban suke da dabbobi masu rarrafe. Wani bambanci mai fadi dake tsakanin tsuntsaye da dabbobi masu rarrafe shine fuka-fuki wanda su kadai suke da wannan sifar.

kuş kanadı, detaylı kanat resmi

Jikin dabbobi masu rarrafe a rufe jikinsu yake da nau’in fata mai kauri, a daya hannun kuwa, jikin tsuntsaye na rufe ne da fuka-fukai. Tunda masana juyin halittasun dauki dabbobi masu rarrafe a matsayin asali ga tsuntsaye, sai suyi da’awar cewa fuka-fukai daga fata mai kauri suke. Bayan kuma, babu wata alaka ta kamanni tsakaninsu.

Farfesa a fanning ilmin yanayin jiki da jijiya daga jami’ar Connecticut, A.H. Brush, ya yarda da wannan Magana duk da cewa shima masanin juyin halitta ne: “kowace sifa daga tsarin halittar jini, zuwa bunkasarta, tsarin tafiyar jini da fatarsu daban take (a gashin fuka-fukinsu da zanensu)”1 Haka kuma, Farfesa Brush yayi bincike akan sunadaran gina jiki da tsarin fuka-fukan tsuntsu kuma yace “iri daya ne a jikin tsuntsaye.”2

Babu wata shaida da take nuna burbushin fuka-fukan tsuntsu sun samu daga irin na dabbobi masu rarrafe. Sabain haka, “fuka-fukan sun samu ne a daftarin kwatsam, a matsayin ‘abinda ba za’a juyar ba’ da sifar daya wadda take bambance tsuntsaye.” Kamar yadda Farfesa Brush ya ambata.3

A gefe guda, a dabbobi masu rarrafe, har yanzu babu wani tsarin fatar jikinsu da aka gano wanda yake nuni ga asalin fuka-fukan tsuntsu.4

A 1996, masana burbushin halittu sun bada labarin wani nau’in fuka-fukin tsuntsu dinosaur, mai suna Sinosauropteryx. Kuma a cikin 1997, aka bayyana cewar wadannan burbushin babu abinda ya hada su da tsuntsaye kuma ban a wannan zamanin bane.5

A daya bangare kuwa, idan muka lura da fuka-fukan tsuntsu sosai, zamu gano wani irin zane a cakude wanda juyin halitta ba zai iya bayani ba. Shahararren masani akan tsuntsaye Alan Feduccia ya ambata cewa “kowace sifa daga garesu tana da nata irin aikin. Suna da tsananin haske, suna da ikon tashi sama, tare da rage gudu, kuma su dawo inda suke cikin sauki.” Sai ya cigaba da cewa, “Ni bana iya gane yadda aka halicci gaba don tashi kuma ace ta samu saboda wata bukatar a farko.”6

Zanen fuka-fukai na jefa Charles Darwin cikin damuwa. Haka kuma, kyakkyawan tsarin gashin fuka-fukin macen dawisu yasa masa “zazzabi” (ya fada da kansa). A wasikar da ya aikawa Asa Gray a ranar 3 ga Afrilu, 1860, yake cewa “Na tuna sosai lokacin da tunanin idon ya sani rawar dari, amma nagama da wannan matsalar…”sai ya cigaba. …kuma yanzu sarke-sarken dake jikin sifar yakan sani cikin damuwa. Tsarin jikin gashin namijin dawisu, duk lokacin dana sa ido akan dawisu, sai ya sani zazzabi!”7

1. A. H. Brush, "On the Origin of Feathers", Journal of Evolutionary Biology, Vol. 9, 1996, s. 132.

2. A. H. Brush, "On the Origin of Feathers", s. 131.

3. A. H. Brush, "On the Origin of Feathers", s. 133.

4. A. H. Brush, "On the Origin of Feathers", s. 131.

5. "Plucking the Feathered Dinosaur", Science, Cilt 278, 14 Kasım 1997, s. 1229.

6. Douglas Palmer, "Learning to Fly", (Review of The Origin of and Evolution of Birds by Alan Feduccia, Yale University Press, 1996), New Scientist, Cilt 153, 1 Mart 1997, s. 44.

7. Norman Macbeth, Darwin Retried: An Appeal to Reason. Boston: Gambit, 1971, s. 101.

Jita-Jitar Masana Juyin Halitta Hakora da Fikar Archeaopteryx

Muhimman batutuwa guda biyun dam asana suke dogaro yayin da suke zarin Archeaopteryx na canjin yanayi, sune fika a jikin fuka-fukanta da hakora.

Gaskiya ne Archeaopteryx na da fika a fuka-fukansa da kuma hakora a bakinsa, amma basu ne suka nuna cewar wannan halitta tana da wata dangantaka da halittu masu kafafuwa ba. Bayan haka, jinsi biyu na tsuntsaye wadanda suke raye a yau. Tauraco da Hoatzin suma suna da wannan fika wadda take taimaka musu wurin sauka akan rassan da kafafuwa. Shine yasa ya zamanto gaba daya babu wata madogara akan cewa Archeaopteryx wani tsaka-tsakin yanayi ne saboda fikar dake jikin fuka-fukansa.

Hakoran Archeaopteryx suma basa nuni ga tsaka-tsakin yanayi. Masanan sunyi wata dabara ce dake nuna cewar wai suna dauke ne da sifofi irin na dabbobi masu kafafuwa. A yau wasu daga dabbobi masu rarrafe suna da hakora wasu kuwa babu. Haka kuma, Archeaopteryx ba shi kadai ne tsuntsu dake da hakora ba. Gaskiya ne a yanzu babu tsuntsayen dake da hakora, amma idan muka duba cikin daftarin burbushin halittu, zamu ga cewa a shekarun da Archeaopteryx ya rayu da wasu shekarun bayan haka, da wasu shekarun daf da yanzu, wasu irin tsuntsaye sun samu wadanda za’a iya sanya a matsayin “tsuntsaye masu hakora”

Archæopteryx exhibits the features of a full-fledged bird:
archaeopteryx, fosil

1.Its feathers show that it was a warm-blooded creature able to fly.

2.Its bones are hollow, like those of birds living today.

3.Its teeth represent no evidence that it evolved from reptiles. Many toothed bird species lived in the past.

4.There are bird species living today that possess similar claws on their wings.

5.The breastbone was observed in the seventh Archæopteryx fossil found recently. The presence of this bone shows that just like present-day birds, it possessed powerful flight muscles.

Abu mafi muhimmanci shine tsarin hakoran Archeaopteryx da sauran tsuntsaye masu hakora sun sha bamban daga irin wadanda suke zaton magabatansu ne, wato dinosaur. Shahararrun masana, Martin, Steward, da Whetstone sunyi nazari akan Archeaopteryx da sauran tsuntsaye masu hakora sun ga hakoransu na Da fadi a sama kuma da rassa mafi fadi. Duk da haka hakoran dinosaur, wadanda suke zargin magabatan tsuntsaye ne, masu kama da zarto ne kuma tsukakkun rassa.48

Masu binciken sun gwada kasusuwan fuka-fukin Archeaopteryx da na dinosaur, kuma sun gano babu wata alaka ta kama tsakaninsu.49

Masu nazarin kwayoyin halittu kamarsu Tarsitano, Hetch, da A.D. Walker sun bayyana cewa wasu “kamanni” da aka ce sun wanzu tsakanin wannan halitta da dinosaur kamar yadda John Ostrom, wani mai fada aji wanda yayi da’awa cewar Archeaopteryx sun samo daga dinosaur, amma a gaskiya bashi ne ainihin abinda ya fada ba.

Dukkanin wadannan bincike da aka yi an gano cewar Archaeopteryx ba tsaka-tsakin sifa bane, amma tsuntsu ne kawai da ya fa da cikin rukunin da za’a iya kira “tsuntsaye masu hakora”.

Archeaopteryx da Wasu Burbushin Halittun Tsuntsaye

A yayin dam asana juyin halitta suka dade suna riko da yada cewa Archeaopteryx shine babbar hujjarsu akan tatsuniyar juyin halittar tsuntsaye, wasu kuwa sai gano burbushin day a rushe waccan tatsuniya suke ta wasu fuskokin.

onfuciosornis, kuş fosili

Tsuntsun da ake kira Confuciusornis shekarun su daya da Archeaopteryx

Lianhai Hou da Zhongae Zhou, wasu masana akan binciken burbushin halitta a cibiyar binciken Burbushin halittar (halittu masu kasusuwa ta kasar Sin) China, a shekara ta 1995 sun gano burbushin wani sabon tsuntsu mai suna Confuciusornis. Wannan tsuntsu kusan shekarunsu daya da Archeaopteryx (kusan shekaru miliyan 140 da suka shude), amma babu hakora a bakinsa. Kari akan haka, bakinsa da fuka-fukansa sunyi kama da tsuntsayen wannan zamanin. Bayan ma tsarin kasusuwansa iri daya ne da tsuntsayen yanzu, wannan tsuntsu ma yana da fika a fuka-fukansa kamar dai Archeaopteryx. Wata sifa ta musamman da ake kira “pygostyle” wato “Kashin Jela” akwai shi a jikin wannan tsuntsu, mai shekaru daya da Archeaopteryx (wadda aka dauka itace tsohuwar magabaciyar tsuntsaye kuma aka yarda a matsayin tsaka-tsakin halitta), kuma tayi kama da tsuntsun wannan zamanin. Wannan hujja ce data rushe duk wasu da’awoyin masanan akan Archeaopteryx cewa itace dadaddiyar magabaciyar dukkanin tsuntsaye.51

Wani burbushin da aka binciko a kasar Sin (China) a watan Nuwamba 1996, ya haifar da gagarumin rudani. Hou, Martin da Alan Feduccia sun shelanta wanzuwar wannan tsohon tsuntsu mai shekaru miliyan 130 mai suna Liaoningarornis a mujallar kimiyya ta Science. Tsuntsu Liaoningornis yana da kashin kirji wanda karfin tashinsa na hade da wurin, kamar dai tsuntsayen yanzu. Babu wani bambanci ta kowace fuska tsakaninsa dasu.Sai dai a hakoran bakinsa. Wanna hali ya nuna cewar tsuntsaye masu hakora basu da wasu dadaddun sifofi kamar yadda masana suke shelantawa.52 An rubuta wannan Magana a cikin kasidar data fito a mujallar Discover “Tsuntsayen da suka zo” Wannan burbushin ya nuna ba daga dinosaur suke ba”53

Wani burbushin dake rushe da’awar masanan akan Archeaopteryx shine tsuntsu Eoalulavis. Siffar fuka-fukin Eoalulavis, wanda aka ce Archeaopteryx shine ya girme shi da shekaru miliyan 30, an gano shi a cikin tsuntsayen da suke tashi a hankali a wannan zamanin. Wannan shi ya tabbatar da cewa shekaru miliyan 120 da suka shude, an yi wasu tsuntsaye wadanda basu da bambanci tsakaninsu da na yanzu ta fuskoki da dama a yanayin tashinsu a sararin sama.54

Har ila yau, wadannan hujjoji sun tabbatr da cewa. Archaeopteryx da sauran tsuntsaye makamantansu basu da tsaka-tsakin sifa. Burbushinsu baya nuna cewar bambancin jinsunan tsuntsayen sun wanzu daga kowannensu. Sabanin haka, daftarin burbushinsu yana nuna tsuntsayen wannan zamani da wadancan tsuntsaye irinsu Archeaopteryx sun rayu ne lokaci daya. Duk da haka wasu daga cikin wadannan jinsunan tsuntsaye irinsu Archeaopteryx da Conficiusornis sun dade da bacewa kuma kadan ne daga irinsu suka kawo izuwa yanzu.

A takaice dai, wasu kebantattun sifofin Archeaopteryx bas a nuna cewa wannan rayayyen tsuntsu yana da tsaka-tsakin yanyi! Stephen Jay Gould da Niles Eldredge, masana binciken burbushin halittu na Harvard kuma shahararrun masana juyin halitta, sun yarda cewa Archeaopteryx “sura” ce wadda aka yiwa hde-haden wasu irin kayan karau, duk wannan ba zai taba sawa a dauke shi a matsayin tsaka-tsakin sifa ba! 55

Hasashen Tsuntsu – Alakar Dinosaur

alan feduccia, hayali kuş

Prof. Alan Feduccia

Dagewar da masana juyin halitta suka yi don su gabatar da Archeaopteryx a matsayin tsaka-tsakin yanayi sunce tsuntsaye sun faro halittarsu ne daga dinosaur, wata dabba mai rarrafe. Haka kuma, daya daga cikin shahararrun masana akan ilmin tsuntsaye a duniya, Alan Fuduccia daga jami’ar Carolina ta Arewa, ya soki ka’idar da ake cewa tsuntsaye suna da alaka ta jini da dabbar dinosaur, duk da cewa shima masanin juyin halitta ne.

Feduccia yace:

A gaskiya, nayi nazarin kwarangwal din tsuntsaye tsawon shekaru 25 banga wata alaka ta ko’ina ba.ni sam ban gani ba… A ra’ayina, asalin halittar tsuntsaye, zai zama babban asali abin kunya ga masana burbushin halittar karni na 20.56

Larry Martin, kwararre a fannin dadaddun tsuntsaye na jami’ar Kansas, ya soki lamirin ka’idar data ce tsuntsaye sun samo asali daga dinosaur. Yayin da yake tattaunawa akan rudanin da juyin hallitta ya shigar akan wannan gaba, Martin ya fada cewa:

Na fada muku gaskiya, idan d azan goyi bayan asalin tsuntsaye daga dinosaur tare da sifofin da suke dauke dasu, to zanji kunya a duk lokacin d azan tashi nayi Magana akansa.57

Mu takaice maganar faifan “juyin halittar tsuntsaye” an tsayar dashi ne akan Archeaopteryx, kuma ba komai bane illa son zuciya da burin dake cikin tunanin masana juyin halitta. Kamar yadda muka fada a baya, ka’idar juyin halitta ta gabatar da cewa wasu kirkirarrun halittu sun fito daga ruwa suka rikida suka zama halittu masu rarrafe kuma tsuntsaye ma sun samo asali daga halittu masu rarrafe.

Menene Asalin Kwari?

Da’awar cewa dinosaur sun rikida zuwa tsuntsaye, masana Juyin halitta sun tallafi wannan magana da cewa wasu daga cikin dinosaur wadanda suka lankwasa kafafuwan gabansu don farautar kwari “sun samu fuka-fuki kuma suka tashi” kamr yadda aka gani a hoton nan. Babu kimiyya a cikin wannan batu, sai daikawai kirkiren has ashen da bashi da tushe, kuma duk da haka said a suka karyata kansu ta kalmar da suke fada cewa: misalin da suke fada wanda yake bayani akan asalin kwari, wato, kwaro tuni dama yana da kyakkyawan tsarin tashi. Sai dai mutum ba zai iya bude kuma ya rufe idonsa sau goma a sakan dayaba, face kwaro ya kada fuka-fukansa sau 500 a sakan daya. Haka kuma, yana kada fuka-fukansa ne a tare. Kubucewar kadawarsu tare na iya jawo sanadiyyar rasa karfinsa amma hakan bata taba afkuwa ba.

dinazor, sinek

Misali daga zane-zanen masanan: dinosaur ne wanda ya samu fuka-fuki lokacin da yayi kokarin ya tashi ya kamo kwari Kwatsam!

Saboda haka masanan sai su zo mana da bayanin yadda kwari suke tashi da irin wannan kyakkyawan tsari. Maimakon haka, sai suke rika kirkiro labaran karya akan yadda halittu masu kama da halittu masu rarrafe suke tashi.

Daidai da halittar kwaron gida (kuda) ma ya rushe da’awar juyin halitta. Baturen nan masanin halitta Robin Wootton ya rubuta kasida mai taken “The mechanical Design of fly Wings”:

“Da zarar muna samun kyakkyawar fahimta akan aikin fuka-fukan kwari, sai mu kara

Misali daga zane-zanen masanan: dinosaur ne wanda ya samu fuka-fuki lokacin da yayi kokarin ya tashi ya kamo kwari Kwatsam!

samun haske game da kyawun tsarin yadda suka bayyana. Siffarsu an tsara tane da kankantarta kuma da samuwarta a haka; fuka-fukanta kuwa an tsara su yadda zasu iya motsi ta hanyar da akan iya hasashowa. Fuka-fukan kwari sun hadu a guda daya, suna amfani da na’urorin dake sanar dasu ko kiyaye su daga fuskantar wani hari sannan suna amfani da iska sosai”.1

A daya bangaren kuma, babu wani burbushin dake nuna shaidar has ashen juyin halittar kwari. Wannan shine abinda masanin dabbobbi dan kasar Faransa (France) Pierre Grasse lokacin day ace: “Lallai muna cikin duhu dangane da asalin kwari.”2

1 J. Robin Wootton, "The Mechanical Design of Insect Wings", Scientific American, Cilt 263, Kasım 1990, s. 120.

2 Pierre-P Grassé, Evolution of Living Organisms, New York: Academic Press, 1977, s. 30

Asalin Halittu Masu Shayarwa

Kamar yadda muka fada a baya, ka’idar juyin halitta ta gabatar da cewa wasu kirkirarrun halittu sun fito daga ruwa suka rikida suka zama halittu masu rarrafe kuma tsuntsaye ma sun samo asali daga halittu masu rarrafe. Kamar yadda suka fada a labarinsu, ba kawai tsuntsaye ne suka samo asali daga halittu masu rarrafe ba har ma da halittu masu shayarwa. Koda yake, akwai manyan ratar gabbai tsakanin dabbobi masu rarrafe, wadanda suke da makarai a jikinsu, tare da cewar suna yin kwai, a daya bangaren kuma, dabbobi masu shayarwa, suna da tattausan gashi baibaye da jikinsu, kuma suna haifar ‘ya’yansu rayayyu.

Bats
 yarasa fosili, fosil

Masana Juyin halitta sun yada cewa dukkanin jinsiin Dabbobi masu shayarwa sun samo asali daga magabaci daya. Koda yake akwai manyan bambanci tsakanin sauran jinsinan kamar su karan ruwa, da babban kifi, bera, da Jemage. Kowane daya daga cikin halittun yana dauke da wata kebantacciyar sifa ta musamman.

Misali, Jemage an halicce shi dauke da wasu sifofi wadanda suke taimaka musu ganin hanyar komai duhun dare. Wadannan hadaddun sifofi, Wanda fasahar zamani ma sai dai ta kwaikwaya, ba za’a ce sun samu Kwatsam ba tare da mai haliitarsu ba. Daftarin Burbushin Halittu ya tabbatar da Da cewa an halicci Jemage Ne da sifar da aka sanshi Kwatsam kuma ba ta Hanyar Juyin halitta ba.

Jemage mai shekaru miliyan 50: babu bambanci dana yanzu. (sci, vol.154)

Misali daga bambancin gabbai tsakanin dabbobi masu rarrafe da masu shayarwa shine tsarin halittar kashin muka-mukinsa. Dabbobi masu shayarwa suna dauke da kashin dadashi wanda dukkan hakoransu akansa suke. A dabbobi masu rarrafe kuwa, akwai kananan kasusuwa guda uku-uku a kowane bangare na kashin dadashinsu. Wani abu dake kara bambanta su shine dukkanin dabbobi masu shayarwa suna da kasusuwa guda uku a tsakiyar kunnensu (hammer, anvil, and stirrup). A dukkan dabbobi masu rarrafe, suna da kashi daya ne kawai a kunnen tsakiya

Masanan sunce wai dadashi da kuma kunnen dabbobi masu rarrafe ne suka rika canzawa a hankali har suka zama na dabbobi masu shayarwa. Wanda har yanzu sun kasa amsa tambayar yadda kunne mai kashi daya ya canza ya koma mai kashi uku da kuma yadda gabar sauraro take yin aiki. Babu mamaki, don an kasa samun wata hujja dake alakanta dabbobi masu rarrafe da masu shayarwa. Wannan shine dalilin da yasa masanin burbushin halittu Roger Lewin dole tasa ya fito yace “canjin yanayin halittar data fara zama dabba mai shayarwa, wadda ta afku a guda, ko ince a biyun dangoginsu, abu ne mai daure kai.”58

George Gaylord Simpson, daya daga manyan masu fada aji a fannin juyin halitta kuma daya daga cikin wadanda suka kafa cigaban ka’idar Darwin yayi wannan bayani akan wannan hujjar wadda ta dagulawa masanan lissafi:

Abinda yafi komai rikitarwa a tarihin rayuwar duniya shine canji daga dadadden lokaci (Mesozoic), zamanin dabbobi masu rarrafe, izuwa zamanin dabbobi masu shayarwa. Wato kai kace an jawo mayafin dake rufe ne da bangon dakin taro inda ake gudanar da wani shiri, gashi kowannensu ya gabatar da abinda aka saka shi, musamman ma dinosaur, gasu da yawa kuma kowanne na yin aikinsa, suna rikidewa zuwa wani nau’I, suna tashi suna nuna wani salon da sabuwar sifa, wanda daga nan basu sake fitowa ta biyu ba. Sauran halittu masu rarrafe kuwa gasu nan sunyi yawa, kuma dukkan rawar da dabbobi masu shayarwa zasu taka sun yi a farkon farawa.59

Bayan haka, yayin da dabbobi masu shayarwa suka gama tasu shigowar, duk sun canza kamanninsu. Mabambantan dabbobi kamar jemagu, dawakai, beraye, da manyan kifaye duk dabbobi na wadanda suka bayyana a zamani daya. Tabbatar da lakar juyin halitta a tsakaninsu abu ne wanda ba zai yiwu ba koda kuwa za’a fadada hasashensu. Masanin juyin halittar dabbobi R. Eric Lombard shima ya fadi wannan Magana a wata kasida data fito a mujallar Evolution:

Wadanda suke neman wasu muhimman wajen shirya Tsarin iyalin dabbobi masu shayarwa zai ji kunya.60

Duk wadannan suna cewa baki dayan halittu masu rai sun wanzu ne aban kasa da cikakkiyar sifarsu kwatsam, ba tare da wani tsarin juyin halitta ba. Wannan kwakkwarar hujja ce akan halittarsu aka yi. Masanan sunyi kokarin fassara hujjarsu ta cewa rayayyun jinsuna sun wanzu ta wani tsari wanda yake nuni izuwa juyin halitta. Duk da haka tsarin da halittu suka wanzu shine “tsarin halitta”, tunda yana da wahala ace wai tsarin juyin halitta ne. Ta wani gawurtaccen karfi mai karya tsarin halitta, tekuna da kasashe suka cika da halittu masu rai kuma daga karshe aka halicci dan Adam.

Sabanin tatsuniyar rabi mutum-rabi gwaggwon biri” wadda aka tilasta yardarm tag a talakawa ta hanyar farfagandar kafofin watsa labarai, mutmu ya bayyana aban kasa kwatsam da cikakkiyar sifa.

Tarihin Juyin Halittar Doki

Nan bada dadewa bane, hasashen da ya bayyana yake nuna Juyin halittar doki, suka dauke shi a matsayin wani muhimmin burbushin dake tabbatar da ka’idar juyin halitta. Koda yake a yau masana da yawa sun fito fili sun fada cewar labarin juyin halittar doki rusashshe ne. masani Boyce Rensberger, wanda ya gabatar da jawabi a taron kwana hudu da aka shirya akan matsalolin zangon tafiyar ka’idar juyin halitta a shekara ta 1980 a dakin tarihi na Field Museum Of Natural history a garin Chicago inda masana juyin halitta 150 suka halarta, yace labarin juyin halittar doki babu wani daftarin burbushin da za’a dogara da shi kuma babu wani tafarkin juyin halitta wanda za’a iya kawowa akan zangon tafiyar juyin halittar dowakai

güzel at, at arageçiş formu

There are breeds of horse of different sizes on Earth. The "evolution of the horse" sequence is nothing more than fossils belonging to these different breeds and certain other mammals being set out one behind the other.

Shahararren misalin da ake bayarwa akan juyin halittar doki, wanda yake nuna zangon tafiyar canji daga sifar karkanda wanda ta rayu kusan shekaru miliyan 50 da suka shude har zuwa dokin wannan zamani, tuni an sani cewa wannan kuskure ne. Maimakon zangon tafiyar canji, burbushin tsaka-tsakinsu ya bayyana ne a cikakkiyar sifa, yaki kuma canzawa, daga nan ne abu ne wanda ba’a san shi ba.1

Shahararren masanin burbushin halittu Colin Patterson, shugaban Dakin Tarihi na kasar Ingila wato ‘Natural History Musuem of England inda aka taskace “juyin halittar doki” kuma ake nuna shi, yayi Magana dangane da wannan nuni da ake tayi a harabar cikin dakin tarihin:

Akwai tatsuniyoyin karya da yawa, wasu sunfi iya kirkira akan wasu, akan yanayin tarihi (akan rayuwar ) hakinanin tabbatarsa. Babban misali, shine wanda har yanzu ake nuna shi a harabar shigowa, wato nuni akan juyin halittar doki wanda aka shirya shi kusan shekaru 50 da suka wuce. Wanda aka gabatar a cikin littattafai daban-daban a matsayin gaskiya. Amma ni ina ganin yanzu ya cancanci suka mai yawa, musamman ma idan wadand suka kirkiri irin wadannan tatsuniyoyi su da kansu sun iya gano irin rudanin dake tattare dasu.2

Shin menene hakikanin labarin “juyin halittar doki”? An kirkiri wannan labari ne ta hanyar zantuttukan yaudara wanda aka tsara su dangane da burbushin jinsuna mabanbanta da suka rayu a zamunna daban-daban a kasar Indiya, Afrika ta yamma, Amurka ta arewa, da Turai ba don komai ba saboda karfin has ashen tunanin da suke dashi akan juyin halitta. Akwai sama da zane 20 akan juyin halittar doki da masu bincike daban-daban suka yi. Kuma har yanzu masana juyin halitta basu yi ijma’i akan wadannan bishiyoyin iyali ba, wadda ta sha bamban a tsakaninsu. Abinda kawai suka yi ijma’i akai shine yarda da cewa wata halitta mai kama da kare (a girma) mai suna “Eohippus” wadda ta rayu a zamanin Eocene shekaru miliyan 55 da suka shude shine magabacin doki (Equus). Amma kuma wannan tsaunin juyin halitta daga Eohippus zuwa Equus sam bai hadu ba.

güzel at, at arageçiş formu

This horse series in a museum display is comprised of various animals that lived at different times, and in different geographical locations. Here they have been arranged arbitrarily, one after the other, to suggest a linear sequence, according to a biased perspective. This scenario of equine “evolution” has no support in the fossil record.

Masanin kimiyya kuma marubuci Gordon R. Taylor, ya bayyana wannan gaskiya a littafinsa mai suna The Great Evolution Mystery:

Amma muhimmiyar gazawar Darwiniyanci shine kasawar masana burbushin halitta gano wasu sassa da suka nuna mafi yawancin canzawar yananyin halittar wanda aka ce shine dokin da aka fitar misali. Amma hakikanin gaskiya shine tsarar dake tsakanin Eohippus zuwa Equus ba gaskiya bane. An ce akwai nuni dangane da cigaban Karin girman jiki, gaskiyar Magana itace wasu sunfi Eohippus kankanta, ba girma ba. Samfuran da aka samo wuri daban-daban suna iya ganuwa da sifa mai gamsarwa, amma fa babu shaidar cewa sun jeru net a hakan a wani lokaci.3

Dukkanin wadannan hujjoji shaidu ne kwarara akan zane-zanen juyin halitta, wanda aka gabatar dasu cewa sune daya daga cikin karfafan shaidun Darwiniyanci, amma dukkaninsu labaran karya ne.

1 Boyce Rensberger, Houston Chronicle, November 5, 1980, p.15

2 Harper's Magazine, February, 1985, s. 60

3 Francis Hitching, The Neck of the Giraffe: Where Darwin Went Wrong, New York: Ticknor and Fields, 1982, ss. 30-31.

4 Francis Hitching, The Neck of the Giraffe, ss. 30-31.

5 Gordon Rattray Taylor, The Great Evolution Mystery, London: Sphere Books, 1984, s. 230

 

Footnotes

44 Robert L. Carroll, Vertebrate Paleontology and Evolution, New York: W. H. Freeman and Co., 1988, sh. 198.

45 Engin Korur, "Gözlerin ve Kanatlarin Sirri" (The Mystery of the Eyes and the Wings), Bilim ve Teknik, No. 203, October 1984, sh. 25.

46 Nature, Vol 382, August, 1, 1996, sh. 401.

47 Carl O. Dunbar, Historical Geology, New York: John Wiley and Sons, 1961, sh. 310.

48 L. D. Martin, J. D. Stewart, K. N. Whetstone, The Auk, Vol 98, 1980, sh. 86.

49 Ibid, p. 86; L. D. Martin "Origins of Higher Groups of Tetrapods", Ithaca, New York: Comstock Publising Association, 1991, sh. 485, 540.

50 S. Tarsitano, M. K. Hecht, Zoological Journal of the Linnaean Society, Vol 69, 1985, p. 178; A. D. Walker, Geological Magazine, Vol 177, 1980, sh. 595.

51 Pat Shipman, "Birds do it... Did Dinosaurs?", New Scientist, February 1, 1997, sh. 31.

52 "Old Bird", Discover, March 21, 1997.

53 Ibid.

54 Pat Shipman, "Birds Do It... Did Dinosaurs?", sh. 28.

55 S. J. Gould & N. Eldredge, Paleobiology, Vol 3, 1977, sh. 147.

56 Pat Shipman, "Birds Do It... Did Dinosaurs?", sh. 28.

57 Ibid.

58 Roger Lewin, "Bones of Mammals, Ancestors Fleshed Out", Science, vol 212, June 26, 1981, sh. 1492.

59 George Gaylord Simpson, Life Before Man, New York: Time-Life Books, 1972, sh. 42.

60 R. Eric Lombard, "Review of Evolutionary Principles of the Mammalian Middle Ear, Gerald Fleischer", Evolution, Vol 33, December 1979, sh. 1230.

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