Evolution Hoax

Rudun Juyin Halitta

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10 / total: 22

Babi Na 8 - Jabun Halitta

Babu wata tabbatacciyar shaidar dake marawa zanen "mutum mai kama da gwaggwon biri, wadda suke kururutawa ta hanyar kafofin waatsa labarai da tsarar malamai masana juyin halitta baya kowannensu da tsinken shafe a hannunsa, suke zana hotunan halittun, har ila yau rashin samnu halittar da tayi kama da zane-zanensu a cikin burbushin halittu ya tara musu matsaloli. daya daga cikin hanyoyin da suke bi don su kawar da matsalar itace "samar " da burbushin halittun da ba zasu iya bincikowa ba. mutumin Piltdown, babbar takaddama a tarihin kimyya, wani misali ne a wannan tsari.

Mutumin Piltdown: Mai hakoran Orang-utan da kwarangwal na Mutum

 
Tatsuniya ta Yaudara
1

Charles Dawson ya samo burbushin halittu wanda ya bawa Sir Arthur Smith Woodward

piltdown adamı, bilim adamları
2

An hade bangorai don a hada sanannen Kwarangwal. Bangorai da kwarangwal din mutum Dadashin Orang-utan

piltdown kafatası,kaftası fosili
3

taskace kwarangwal din na asali a dakin tarihi na Birtaniya.

piltdown adamı, büst
4

Bayan shekaru 40 da gano shi, wasu masu bincike sun nuna cewa burbushin mutumin Piltdown yaudara ce

piltdown adamı, paleontolojist

Wani sanannen likita kuma tsohon masanin binciken halittar mutum, Charles Darwson shine yazo da cewar ya samo dadashi wasu sassan kwarangwal a wani rami a garin Piltdown, kasar Ingila (England) a 1912. Koda yake yafi kama da gwaggwon biri, amma hakoransa da kokon kansa irin na mutum ne. Shine suka rada (500,000), kuma sun saka shi a dakunan tarihi da dama wai kakkafar hujja ce dake tabbatar da juyin halittar mutum. Sama da shekaru arba'in (40), anyi rubuce-rubucen kimiyya da dama akan "Mutumin Piltdown", anyi maganganu da zane-zane akansa.63 Shanararren baamurke Henry Fairfield Osborn masanin burbushin halittu yace: "...dole ne mu tunatar lokaci bayan lokaci cewa yanayi na cike da sarkakiya kuma wannan shine abinda bincike mai bab takaici ya nuna dangane da mutunen farko..." a yayin da yake a ayyin da yake ziyartar dakin tarihi na birtaniya a shekarar 1935.64

A shekara ta 1949, Kenneth Oakley, wanda yake a sashen binciken dadaddun halittu na dakin tarihin Birtaniya yayi kokarin yin gwaji da sunadarin "flourine", sabon gwajin da yake nuna dadewar lokacin wasu daga cikin dadaddun halittu. yayi wannan gwaji ne akan burbushin halittar mutumin Piltdown. Sakamakon mai faranta rai ne. Domin lokacin da yake gwajin, ya gano cewa kasusuwan hakoran mutumin Piltdown basa dauke da sunadarin flourine. Wannan shi yake nuna cewar shekarun da aka binne shi basu da yawa ainun. Kokon kansa dauke da sunadarin flourine kadan ne, ya nuna karancin dubban shekarunsa.

Sabon gwajin da aka yi da sunadarin flourine ya nuna karancin dubban shekarun da kokon kansa yake dashi. An tabbatar da cewa hokaran dake jikin dadashin mallakar Orang-utan ne kuma saka shi aka yi kuma dadadden sasannin da aka gano tare da burbushin halittar an fike su ne da na'ura sannan aka makala su.65

Cikakken bayanin da Weiner ya gabatar, wato an bayyanar a fili cewar kwarangwal din na boge ne a 1953. Kokon kan mallakar wani mutum ne mai shekaru dari biyar-500, sannan kashin dadashin mallakar wani mataccen gwaggwon biri! An jera hskoran ne da jikin dadashin domin yayi kama da na mutum. Sannan sai aka mannesu da sunadarin potassium dichromate, domin ya bada wani dadadden lokacin da aka same su. A lokacin da aka saka shi a cikin sunadarin Acid sai dankon ya fara fita-Le Gros Clark, wanda dashi aka gano cewa jabu ne, ya kasa boye ra'ayinsa game da al'amarin yana cewa jabu ne, ya kasa boye ra’ayinsa game da al’amarin yana cewa “shaidar data rigaya ta bayyana game da gashin gira day a fito a gefen ido. Hakika sun sani cewa sai an tambaya –yaya aka yi suma basu ganshi ba sai yanzu?”66 Ganin haka, sai aka yi sauri aka cire “Mutumin Piltdown daga dakin tarihi na Birtaniya inda ake ajiye dashi tsawon shekaru arba’in.

Mutumin Nebraska: Hakorin Alade

nebraska, diş fosili

An zana hoton dake gefen hagu sakon wani hakori Daya da aka tsinta kuma an buga shi London News Magazine a ranar 24 ga Juli, 1992. Bayan haka, masana juyin halitta sun ji kunya lokacin da aka tabbatar da cewar wannan hakorin ban a jinsin biri bane ballantana mutum, amma na tsohon jinsin alade ne.

A shekarar 1922, Henry Fairfield Osborn, mai kula dad akin tarihin halittu dake Amurka, ya bayyana cewa ya gano wani burbushin hakori a Nebraska ta yamma kusa da wani wuri ‘Snake Brooke’ mallakar zamanin Pliocene. Yayi ikirarin cewa wannan hakori yayi kama dana mutum da kuma gwaggwon biri. Zurfafan takaddama ta afku tsakanin masana kimiyya inda wadansu suke ganin hakorin halitta Pithecanthropus erectus ne, inda wasu suke ganin yafi kama da hakoran mutum. Wannan burbushi, wanda ya jawo takaddama mai zafin, ansa masa suna “Mutumin Nebraska”. Nan da nan suka bashi “suna a kimiyance”: Hesperopithecus haroldcooki.

Masu fada aji da yawa sun goyi bayan Osborn. Akan wannan hakorin guda ne, aka zana kan mutumin Nebraska da gangan jikinsa. Bayan haka, aka nuna zanen hoton wai ga mutumin Nebraska nan tare da matarsa da ‘ya’yansa, da kuma yadda suke rayuwa da iyalinsu.

Dukkan wadannan zane-zane sun ta’allaka ne akan hakori guda-daya. Daga cikin masana kimiyya sunyi na’am da “mutum-mutumin” har ta kai sai da aka soki wani mai bincike William Bryan akan wadannan son zuciyoyi nasu dangane da wannan hakori daya, mummunan suka.

An zana hoton dake gefen hagu sakon wani hakori Daya da aka tsinta kuma an buga shi London News Ma-gazine a ranar 24 ga Juli, 1992. Bayan haka, masana juyin halitta sun ji kunya lo-kacin da aka tabbatar da cewar wannan hakorin ban a jinsin biri bane ballantana mutum, amma na tsohon jinsin alade ne.

A shekarar 1927, aka gano wasu bangarorin kasusuwan : Bayanin da yazo akan sabon binciken kasusuwan, ya nuna cewa hakorin ma bana mutum bane ballantana gwaggwon biri. An gano cewa hakorin mallakar wani dadadden jinsin aladen Amurka ne mai suna prosthennops. William Gregory ya sanyawa kasidarsa da aka buga a mujallar Science inda yayi shelar wannan kuskure kamar haka: “Hesperopithecus : Ba gwagwon biri bane kuma ba mutum bane.”67 Daga nan dukkan zane-zanen Hesperopithecus haroldcooki da “iyalinsa” aka yi sauri aka cire daga rubuce-rubucen masana juyin halitta.

ota benga, kongo

Mutumin Piltdown, mutumin Nebraska, Ota Benga…

Ota Benga: Dan Afrika a Keji

matsayin “mafi kusacin yanayin halittar mutum”.Bayan shekaru biyu, sai suka sake kai shi gidan ajiye dabbobi na New York wato Bronx Zoo, a can ne suka rika nuna shi a matsayin “Dadaddiyar magabaciyar halittar mutum” tare da wasu kananan gwaggwon biri, da wani birin mai suna Dinah, da Orang-utan mai suna Dohung. Dr William T.

Hornaday, mai kula da wannan gidan ajiyar dabbobi yayi dogon jawabi da nuna alfaharinsa akan ajiyar da yake yiwa Ota Benga akan cewar shine kadai nau’in “tsaka-tsakin sifa’ da aka samu kuma yake ajiye dashi, kai kace wata OTA BENGA dabba ce. Rashin jurewarsa ga irin wannan kaskanci da Dan Afrika A Keji ya gamu dashi, Ota Benga ya kasha kansa.68

Wadannan rikice-rikicen da masanan suke yadawa basu ki suyi amfani da duk wata hanyar da babu kimiya a ciki wajen tabbatar da ka’idarsu. Idan muka dubi wadancan shaidu nasu akan tatsuniyar “juyin halittar mutum”, zamu koma gidan jiya ne, idan muka kudurce a zuciya. Anan zamu ga kirkirarrun labarai da gungun sojoji ‘yan sa kai wajen yunkurin tabbatar da labarab ta ko’ina.

 

Footnotes

63 Malcolm Muggeridge, The End of Christendom, Grand Rapids, Eerdmans, 1980, sh. 59.

64 Stephen Jay Gould, "Smith Woodward's Folly", New Scientist, February 5, 1979, sh. 44.

65 Kenneth Oakley, William Le Gros Clark & J. S, "Piltdown", Meydan Larousse, Vol 10, sh. 133.

66 Stephen Jay Gould, "Smith Woodward's Folly", New Scientist, April 5, 1979, sh. 44.

67 W. K. Gregory, "Hesperopithecus Apparently Not An Ape Nor A Man", Science, Vol 66, December 1927, sh. 579.

68 Philips Verner Bradford, Harvey Blume, Ota Benga: The Pygmy in The Zoo, New York: Delta Books, 1992.

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