Evolution Hoax

Rudun Juyin Halitta

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Babi Na 11 - Thermodynamics ta Karyata Juyin Halitta

Ka'idar Thermodynamics ta biyu, wadda aka yarda tana daya daga ka'idojin kimiyyar lissafi, ta riki cewa dukkanin sassan da aka barsu da kansu zasu lalace, wasu kuma su tarwatse saboda alakarsu da nauyin lokacin da ya tafi. kowane abu mai rai ko maras rai zai fice, ya zagwanye, ya kare, kuma ya tarwatse sannan ya lalace. wannan shine karshen da kowace halitta zata fuskanta ta fuska daya ko ta wata fuskar kuma kamar yadda wannan ka'ida ta fada, wannan tsari babu makawa sai an riske shi.

Wannan wani abu ne da dukkaninmu muka sani. Misali idan ka dauki mota ka kaita cikin daji kabarta acan, yana da wuya kayi tsammani zaka same ta a kyakkyawan yanayi idan ka dawo bayan ‘yan shekaru. Sabanin haka, zaka zo ka tarar cewa tayoyinta sunyi kasa, gilasanta sun fashe, haka yake tabbata kuma yafi saurin afkuwa a jikin abu mai rai.

Ka’idar Thermodynamic ta biyu, wata hanya ce da wannan tsari yake bayyana da zahirin lissafi.

Wannan shahararriyar ka’ida ana kiranta da suna “the law of Entroppy”. Entroppy wani jerin tawayayyen tsari ne ilmin lissafin kimiyya. Tsarin entroppy yana karuwa ne yayin da yake kusantar tawayayyen, tarwatsatstsen, kuma yanayi mara shiri daga tsararre, hadadde, kuma shiryayye. Yayin da tsarin tawayayye yake karuwa,haka ma entroppy yake karuwa. Ka’idar entroppy ta riki cewa gaba dayan duniya ta faro ne daga tawayayyen tsari ko yanayi.

Tabbatar ka’idar Thermodynamics ta biyu, ka’idar Entroppy, ta inganta ta hanyar gwaje-gwaje da kayyade-kayyaden kimiyya. Mafi muhimmanci daga masana kimiyyar zamaninmu sun yarda da wannan hujja akan cewa ka’idar entrroppy itace zata yi hukunci nan gaba a tarihi. Albert Einsten, gawurtaccen masanin kimiyyar zamaninmu, yace itace “mafi girman ka’idar dukkanin kimiyya”. Sir Arthur Eddington shima ya dauke ta a matsayin “mafi kololuwar cikar ka’ida ta zahiri ga duniya”. 138

Ka’idar juyin halitta da’awa ce da tayi nisa ga barin wannan gaskiyar ka’idar kimiyyar lissafi. Hujjojin da juyin halitta yazo dasu sunci karo da wannan ka’ida. Ka’idar juyin halitta yazo da cewa tarwatsewa, rarrabewa, da kwayoyin komayya marasa rai da kwayoyin halitta sun hadu tare a cikin tsari don su samar da cakudaddun kwayoyi kamarsu sunadaran gina jiki, jigidar halittar DNA da RNA bayan sun kawo miliyoyin rayayyun bambancin dake cikin jinsuna ta mawuyaciyar sifofi. Kamar yadda yazo a fadin kai’idar juyin halitta, wannan tsari dake shimfida mafi tsarin jeruwa dashi irinsa a kowane mataki ya samarwa kansa dukkan tsari ta karkashin yanayin rayuwa. Ka’idar entroppy ta fito da wannan tsarin yanayin a fili da nuna cewa yaci karo da ka’idar kimiyyar lissafi.

Masanin kimiyya da juyin halitta suna sane da wannan hujja. J.H.Rush yace:

A cakuduwar tafarkin samuwarsa, rayuwa ta wanzar da bambanci mai ban kaye dake bayyana a ka’idar Thermodynamics ta biyu. Inda ka’idar ta biyu ta nuna rashin komowar cigaba izuwa karin entropy da hargitsewar tsari, rayuwa ta faro ne a babban matakin tsari.139

Wani masanin Roger Lewin ya bayyana ra’ayinsa dangane da rushewar juyin halitta a kasidarsa cikin mujallar Science:

Matsala daya da masana halittu suka fuskanta itace ta cin karo da juyin halitta yake yiwa ka’idar Thermodynamics ta biyu. Tsari zai karye idan lokaci yaja, zai bada kadan maimaikon yawan tsari..140

Wani masanin, George Stavropoulos yace Thermodynamics ya hana yiwuwar samun rayuwa da rashin dacewar bayanin wanzuwar hadadden tsarin rayuwa ta ka’idojin yanayi ta sananniyar mujallar juyin halitta American Scientist:

Duk da haka, a karkashin zahirin tsari, babu cakudadden sifar kwayoyin halitta da zai taba samuwa ta hanyar tafasar sunadarai sai dai su rarrabu, don daidaita da ka’ida ta biyu. Hakika, yayin da suke cakuduwa, yayin nan kuma rashin daidaito yake tabbatarwa, yayin nan kusa ko a nesa, suke dada rarrabuwa. Photosynthesis da sauran tafarkan rayuwa, da rayuwar kanta, duk da rikitarwar harshe, ba za’a fahimci Thermodynamics ko wani fannin kimiyya ba.141

Kamar yadda aka ji, ka’ida ta biyu ta thermodynamics ta zama wani babban cikas ga labarin juyin halitta ta fuskar da tunani. Rashin gabatar da hujjar kimiyya da gamsassun bayanai don su shawo kan al’amarin, masanan zasu iya yin nasara ne kawai a hasashensu. Misali, shahararren masanin juyin halitta Jeremy Rifkin ya fadi imaninsa akan cewa juyin halitta ya lullube wannan ka’ida ta kimiyyar lissafi tare da “karfi na tsafi”.

Ka’idar entropy tace juyin halitta ya lullube dukkanin kuzarin rayuwa a wannan sararin duniya. Ilmin mu na juyin halitta shine kishiyar daidai. Munyi imanin cewa juyin halitta ya haifar da mamaya ta gaba daya mai dauke da tsafi akan tsarin duniya.142

Wadannan kalmomi suna nuni a fili cewa juyin halitta wani gurbataccen tafarki ne.

Tarihin “Open System”

Tunkaro gaskiyar wadannan al’amura, masanan sun fake a ka’idar thermoynamics ta biyu, suna lewa wai ta riki gaskiya kawai ne akan “closed systems” ne amma “open system” ya sha kan wannan ka’ida. “Open system” wani tsarin thermodynamic ne wanda kwayoyin kuzari suke kaiwa da kwayoyin halitta suke tsaye cik. Masanan sun riki cewa duniya ‘open system’ ce : wato tana samun kaiwa da komowar karfin kuzari daga rana, da kuma cewa ka’idar entropy bata aiki akan duniya gaba dayanta, kuma tsarin hadaddaun rayayyun halittu ne iya samuwa daga tarwatsettsun, saukakan, kuma matattun sifofi.

Haka kuma, akwai karyewar tsari anan. Hujjar cewa wani bari yana da kai kawon kuzari shi kadai ba zai sanyawa tsarin haduwa ba. Akwai bukatuwar wasu sunadarai da ake bukata iri-iri, wani tsarin kaiwa da komowa, da wadansu na’urorin da zasu canza kuzarin mai yin aiki. Idar babu wannan kuzarin karfi, motar ba zata iya amfanar kuzarin akin man inji ba.

Kamar haka ne yake afkuwa a barin rayuwa. Gaskiya ne cewa rayuwa na samun karfin kuzarinta daga rana. Koda yake, hasken rana na iya canzawa ne zuwa karfin kuzarin jiki ta wani hadadden tsari mai tafiyar dashi a rayayyaun halittu (kamarsu photosynthesis a tsirrai da kuma tsarin matsurutai a jikin mutane da dabbobi). Babu wata halitta rayayyiya da zata iya rayuwa babu wannan ba. Idan babu barin da zai canza haskan rana, rana ba komai bace illa tsarin dake tarwatsa kuzari, kuna, barnata ko narkawa.

Kamar yadda za’a iya gani, tsarin thermodynamic ba tare da tsarin dake canza karfin kuzari ba, bashi da alfano ga juyin halitta, ya kasance a bude ko rufe. Babu wanda ya rabbatur da cewa iredannan haddaun sunadarai sun wanzu a cikin yanayin duniya. Hakika matsalar dahe fuskantar masana juyin halitta shine yadda lakudaddun sunadaran kuzari suke canza abubuwa kamarsu photosynthesis a tsirrai, wadda ba za’a iya kwafarta ba koda da na’urarin fasahar zamani, kuma ace shine ya halicci kansa.

Samuwar hasken rana cikin duniya ba zai wani bari a karan kansa ba. Komai tsananin zafinta, sunadarin amino acid baya rabuwa da juna a sarkar dake jeruwa. Karfin kuzarin shi kadai ba zai iya sanya sunadarin amino acid samar da hadadden tsarin sunadaran gina jiki ba ko ace sunadaran su samar da hadadden tsarin kwayoyin halitta. Hakikanin alfanon wannan tsari a kowane mataki shine kasantuwar kawataccen tsari: a dunkule : a kalma daya, halitta.

Tarihin “Self Organization of matter”

Kasancewar muna da sani akan cewa ka’idar thermodynamic ta biyu ta rushe halitta, wasu masanan sunyi wani yunkurin toshe kafar dake tsakanin biyun don su samarwa juyin halitta gindin zama. Kamar kullum, har ma da wadanda suke fitattu sun nuna cewa ka’idar juyin halitta na fuskantar barazanar rushewa da bata da makawa.

Wani fitattcen mutum dake yunkurin hada thermodynamic da juyin halitta wato masanin kimiyya dan kasar Belgium Ilya Pringogine. Ya fara da ka’idar Tawaya (chaos theory), prigogine ya fitar da bincike da yawa inda cikakken tsari ya samar da tawayayye. Yayi da’awar wai wasu tsarin open system zasu iya nuna raguwa a cikin entroppy saboda kwararar sunadaran kwari da sakamakon fitowarsu “a tsare” shi yake tabbatar da cewa “tulin kwayoyin halitta suna iya tsara kansu”. Tun daga wannan lokaci na ilmin fahimtar yadda “kwayoyin halitta suke shirya kansu” ya shahara tsakanin masana juyin halitta da ‘yan jari-hujja. Suna aiki kai kace sun samo asali ne ga jari-hujja saboda haduwar rayuwa da warware matsalar dake fuskantar jari-hujja akan asalin rayuwa. Amma nazarin da da aka yi na kusa ya fito da wannan da cewar wannan takaddama dai shirme ce kuma tunani ne mai tattare kuma, yana dauke da zamba cikin aminci. Da gangan suke kulla yaudara mai rikitar da wadannan fannoni biyu, “self organization” da “self ordering”.143

Zamu iya bayani tare da misali. Mu dauka cewa ga wani bakin teku, tattare da duwatsun sun jeru a tsare. Ruwan zai tara wadanda suke da girma daga sama. Yayin da igiyar ta koma baya, duwatsun na iya jeruwa a tsari daga kanana zuwa manya izuwa tekun.

Wannan tafarkin “tsara kai ne”. bakin tekun tsarin open system yake dashi kuma akwai kwararar kuzarin karfi (ba kadawar igiya) da ke iya sanya “tsari”. Amma ka sani cewa bin wannan tafarki ba zai iya tara maka tulin yashi a bakin teku ba. Bambanci tsakanin kogon dutse da “tsarin” duwatsu shine na farkon ya kunshi hadadden garwaye, haka kuma na biyun ya kunshi maimaituwar tsari ne kawai. Kamar na’urar rubutu ne ta maimaita haka “aaaaaaaaaaaaaaa” sau daruruwa – sabo da wani abu (kwararar karin karfi) ya fada akan kalmar “a” akan allan rubutu. Maimaituwar tsarin kalmar “a” babu wani bayani da bazuwar tsari. Kana bukatar fadakakkiyar zuciya wadda zata samar da jerin kalmomin da zasu kunshi bayanai.

Irin haka ne zai faru lokacin da iska ta shiga dakin dake cike da kura. Kafin shigowar iskar, kurar na iya kasancewa a baje ko’ina. Yayin da iskar ta shigo ciki, tana iya kasancewa an tara kurar waje guda ne a dakin. Wannan “tsara kai ne”. amma kurar bata taba “tsara kanta” da suranta wani hoton mutum a kasan dakin ba.

Wadannan misalai suna da kama da labaran “tsara kai” da masana juyin halitta suke bayarwa. Sun riki cewa kwayoyin halitta na iya yiwuwar tsara kanta, da kawo misalan tafarkin tsara kai kuma sannan suka yi kokarin rikitar da duka biyun. Da kansa Prigogine ya kawo misalan tsara kai yayin kwararar kuzarin karfi. Masana

kimiyyar Amurka. Thaxton, Bradley da Olsen, a littafinsu mai suna ‘The Mystery of Life’s Origin, sunyi bayanin wannan hujja kamar haka:

...a kowane daya jujjuyawar kwayoyin sundarai a cikin ruwan dake tarwatsa su ana maye gurbinsu ta hanya mafi kyawun tsari. Prigogine, Eigen, da sauransu sun ga cewar makamancin tafarkin tsara kai na iya tabbata a ilmin gwaje – gwajen kwayoyin sunadarai kuma yana iya bada cikakken bayanai dangane da cakuduwar manyan kwayoyin sundaran da suke taimakawa rayuwa. Amma wadannan kiyasi da mukayi suna yanke alaka akan tambayar asalin rayuwa. Babban dalili kuwa shine sun kasa bambance tsakanin tsari da cakuduwa… Daidaito ko tsari ba zai iya ajiye dumbun bayanan da rayuwa take bukata ba. Amma tarwatsatstsen tsari, shine ake da bukata ba tsari kammalalle ba. Akwai babban kuskure da aka tabka a kiyasin da aka yi. Hakika babu wata alaka tsakanin wani canjin tsari dake fitowa daga kwararar kuzarin karfi ta hanyar wadannan gabbai da irin aikin da ake bukata don gina wasu sassan bayanai akan kwayoyin sunadarai kamar su jigidar DNA da sunadaran gina jiki. 144

Hakika Prigogine da kansa ya yarda da cewa hujjarsa bata kare asalin rayuwa. Yace:

matsalar tsarin halitta ya kunshi canzawa daga aikace-aikacen kwayoyi zuwa mafi girman tsarin kwayoyin tantanin halitta.wannan matsala ba mai warwarewa bace. 145

Menene yasa masanan suke ta kokarin yarda da labarin da babu wata kimiyya cikinsa kamar “self organization of matter’’? Me yasa suka dage akan kin karbar fitaccen tsarin halitta? Amsar itace suna yin imani akan jari-hujja kuma sun yarda cewa kwayoyin halitta suna da karfin ikon da zasu halicci rayuwa. Farfesa a ilmin gwaje-gwajen kimiyya daga Jami’ar NewYork kuma kwararre akan jigidar halittar DNA, Robert Shapiro ya bayyana wannan imani da masanan suke yi da kuma akidar jari-huijjar dake tattare a karkashi kamar haka:

Muna bukatar wata akidar juyin halitta wadda zata dauke mu zuwa toshe kafar dake fitowa daga sassaukan gwaurayen sunadarai zuwa sakamakon da zai fara fitowa. Wannan tsari fa har yanzu ba ayi bayani cikakke akansa ba ko a nuna shi a aikace,amma zatonsa kawai ake, da bashi sunaye kamar juyawar sunadarai da tafarkin tsara kwayoyin halitta. Ana daukar wanzuwar tsarin da sako-sako a falsafar harshen jari-hujja,kamar yadda aka dora asalinsa akan rayuwa daga bakin Alexander Oparin.146

Dukkan wannan lamari ya numa a fili cewa juyin halitta dai akide ce data saba de tsarin binakun kimiyya de asalin rayayyun halittu wadande za’a iya bayaninu hadai ta hanyar kasanfuwar buwayayyan iko. Wannan mai iho shine Ubangiji, wanda ya halicei baki dayan duiya dage babu. Kimiyya ta tabbafur de cewa jiyin halitta ba zai taba yiwuwa ba ta fuskar thermodynamics kuma wani bayani ta fushar wanzuwar rayuwa sai dai halitta.

 

Footnotes

138. Jeremy Rifkin, Entropy: A New World View, New York, Viking Press, 1980, p.6

139. J. H. Rush, The Dawn of Life, New York, Signet, 1962, p 35

140. Roger Lewin, «A Downward Slope to Greater Diversity», Science, vol. 217, 24.9.1982, p. 1239

141. George P. Stravropoulos, «The Frontiers and Limits of Science», American Scientist, vol. 65, November-December 1977, p.674

142. Jeremy Rifkin, Entropy: A New World View, p.55

143. For further info, see: Stephen C. Meyer, «The Origin of Life and the Death of Materialism», The Intercollegiate Review, 32, No. 2, Spring 1996

144. Charles B. Thaxton, Walter L. Bradley & Roger L. Olsen, The Mystery of Life’s Origin: Reassessing Current Theories, 4. edition, Dallas, 1992. chapter 9, p. 134

145. Ilya Prigogine, Isabelle Stengers, Order Out of Chaos, New York, Bantam Books, 1984, p. 175

146. Robert Shapiro, Origins: A Sceptics Guide to the Creation of Life on Earth, Summit Books, New York: 1986, p. 207

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