Evolution Hoax

Rudun Juyin Halitta

DOWNLOAD THE BOOK

Download (DOC)
Comments

CHAPTERS OF THE BOOK

< <
4 / total: 22

Babi Na 2 - Takaitaccen Tarihin Ka'idar

Asalin tunanin masana juyin halitta ya fara ne can baya a matsayin wani yunkurin yaudarar imani don karyata hakikanin halitta. Mafi yawa daga falsafawan Girkawan Da sun kare martabar wannan akida ta juyin halita. Idan muka dubi tarihin falsafanci zamu ga cewa akidar juyin halitta itace kashin bayan dukkanin falsafancin maguzawa

Bayan haka, ba wai wannan tsohon maguzancin falsafanci bane, amma imani da Allah shine ya taka rawa wajen haifarwa da cigaban bunkasar kimiyyar zamani sun yarda da samuwar Ubangiji, kuma yayin da suke karantar kimiyya, sun binciko irin samman da Allah ya halitta kuma su kamsashi dokokinsa da bayanai dangane da halittunsa. Masana ilmin Taurari kamarsu Leonardo da Vinci, Corpenicus, Kepler da Galileo, masani akan fannin binciken rayuwa a bayan kasa, Cuvier, kwararre akakn fannonin ilmin tsirrai da dabbobi, Linnaeus, da Isaac Newton, wanda ake fadarsa ake cewa “mafi girman masanin kimyya da imani da ba wai kawai da wanzuwar Ubangiji ba amma duniya baki dayanta ta bayyana ne a dalilin halittar ta da yayi.6 Albert Einstein, wanda aka dauka shine mafi girman masana a zamaninmu, shi ma wani gawurtaccen masanin kimiyya ne da yayi imani da Allah har ma yace; “Bazan iya karbar wani nagartaccen masanin kimyya ba tare da kudurce wannan imani ba. Zan iya kwatanta yanayin da cewa : kimiyya ba tare da addini ba lami ce.” 7

Daya daga cikin wadanda suka kafa kimiyyar modern physics, kuma dan kasar Jamus, Max Planck yace: “Duk wanda ya shagala gadan-gadan a cikin kimiyya kowace iri zai san cewa a saman kofofin shiga fadar kimiyya an rubuta wasu kalmomi: Lallai sai kana da imani! wata daraja ce wadda masana kimiyya ba zasu tafi ba ita ba.” 8

Ka’idar juyin halitta ta bayyana ne sakamakon falsafar jari-hujja, a lokacin da ake farfado da falsafar jari-hujar mutanen Da, kuma ta zama ta yadu a ko’ina a cikin karni na 19. Kamar yadda muka fada a baya, jari-hujja na kokarin bayyana yanayi ta hanyar da suke tabbatar da jari-hujja.Tunda ta karyata samuwar mahalicci a farko, ta tabbatar da 38 Rudun Juyin Halitta dukkan komai, mai rai ko mara rai, ya bayyana ba tare da halittar wani mahalicci ba, amma a sakamakon haduwarsu ta tsarin daidaitacce. Ita zuciyar dan Adam an halicce ta da amincewa akakn wani kasaitaccen iko a duk inda taga tsari. Falsafar jari-hujja, wadda ta zama kishiyar wannan tsari na halittar zuciyar dan Adam, itace ta haifar da “ka’idar juyin zamani” a tsakiyar karni na 19.

Hasashen Darwin

charles darwin, evrim

Charles Darwin

Wanda ya gabatar da ka’idar juyin zamani kamar yadda ake ta kare shi a yau, wani dan Ingila ne, Charles Robert Darwin.

Darwin dai bai taba halartar koyon karatun sanin halitta ba. Ya dauki sha’awar bincike ne a fannin yanayi da halittu masu rai kawai. Sha’awarsa ce ta kai shi ya shiga zangon tafiya a jirgin ruwa mai suna H.M.S. Beagle wanda ya taso daga Ingila a shekara ta 1832 kuma ya kewaya duniya ta Nahiyoyi daban-daban har tsawon shekara biyar. Saurayi Darwin yayi mutukar nishadantuwa da ire-iren halittu, musamman ma wasu kananan tsuntsaye da ya gani a tsibirin Galapagos. Sai yayi tunani cewar bambancin dake tattare dasu a bakunan kowannensu ya faru ne sanadiyyar karbuwa da mazauninsu. Da wannan dabara a zuciyarsa ne yasa ya riya cewa asalin rayuwa da jinsunan halitta sun rataya ne ga karbuwa da mazauninsu. Darwin ya fada cewa bambancin dake tsakanin jinsunan halittu masu rayuwa, ba Allah ne ya haliccesu ba., sai dai sun zo ne daga magabata daya sannan suka bambanta da juna a sakamakon wurin zamansu na asali.

Bayanin Darwin fa bai dora shi akan wani bincike na kimiyya ko gwaje-gwaje ba, bayan haka sai ya juyar da ita izuwa ka’ida ta yaudara da goyon baya da karfafa gwiwa da ya samu daga shahararrun masana kimiyyar jari-hujja na zamaninsa. Hikimar itace, dai-daikun halittu wadanda mazauninsu ya karbesu ta hanya mai kyau zasu iya gadar da wannan tsari ga jikokinsu masu zuwa; wadannan baye-baye masu karko sune suke haduwa a lokaci, kuma su rikidar da kansu zuwa wani nau’I iri-iri daban dana magabatansu. (Asalin wadannan “baye-baye masu karko” ba’a sansu ba a wannan lokacin). Kamar yadda Darwin yace; mutum ne yafi matukar cigaba a wannan yanayi.

Darwin na kiran wannan tsari “evolution by natural selection”, wato”juyin zamani bias zabin yanayi”. Sai ya hararo cewa ya samo “asalin jinsin halittu”: asalim daya daga jinsuna shine na wani. Ya rubuta wadannan ra’ayoyi na sa a littafinsa mai suna ‘The Origin of Species, by means of Natural Selection a 1859.

Darwin na cike da sanin cewa kaidarsa na fuskantar matsaloli masu yawa.Yayi ikirarin haka a littafinsa, a cikin babbin “Matsalolin Ka’idar”. Wadannan matsaloli suna kunshe ne a bangaren matattun dabbobi wadanda aka binciko sun nuna alamu a jikin manyan duwatsu, hadaddun gabobin halittu masu rai wadanda bazai yiwu a bayyana cewa sun samu ne haka nan ba (misali Ido) da sauran gabbai a jikin halittu masu rai. Darwin yayi fatan a shawo kan wadannan matsaloli da sababbin hujjoji, duk da haka wannan bai hana shi kawo dalilai marasa tushe don bayyana su ba. Masanin lissafin kimiyya, Ba-Amirke Lipson yayi bayani mai zuwa akan “matsalolin” Darwin:

Dana karanta The Origin of Species, na gano cewar Darwin shi kansa bashi da tabbas akan abinda yake gabatarwa; babin da yake dauke da ‘matsalolin ka’idar’ misali, na nuna cikakken kokwanto daga gareshi. A matsayina na masanin kimyyar lissafi, naji takaici akan bayaninsa na yadda ido ya samu.9

Tsohon Matakin Kimiyya A Zamaninsu Darwin
ilkel mikroskop, basit mikroskop hücre içi, kompleks hücre

Lokacin da Darwin yasa hasashensa a gaba, fannin ilmin jinsi, fannin sanin halittu da hada magunguna babu su Idan da ace an gano su kafin Darwin ma ya bayyanar da ka’idarsa dayayi sassaukar fahimta cewa ka’idarsa ta zamo babu kimiyya ko ta kwabo kuma bai yi fuskar kwayar halitta.Wani yunkuri na ciyar da ita gaba ba, sakon da yake tabbatar da jinsi tuni dama yana nan a kwayoyin Jinsi kuma yana da wahala ga zabin yanayi, samara da sababbin jinsuna ta hanyar cakuda kwayoyin jinsi.

Haka kuma, duniyar kimiyya a zamanin da akwai da mummunar Fahimta akan tsarin yanayi da ayyuka akan kwayar halitta. Idan da ace Darwin ya samu dammar ganin kwayoyin halitta da na’ura mai hango nesa kusa (microscope), da ya ga abin mamakin dake tattare cikin kwayoyin halitta.

elektron mikroskop, biyolog

Da ya gani da idonsa cewa abu ne mawuyaci akan hadadden tsari ya wakana ta karamar hanya.Idan daya san wani abu akan kimiyyar lissafin rayuwa, day a gane cewar lallai koda sunadarin gina jiki guda daya, ballantana gaba dayan kwayar halitta, ace wai a wanzu haka nan.

Isashshen bincike akan kwayar halitta na yiwuwa bayan an gano na’urar hangen nesa, wato ‘electron microscope’. A zamanisu Darwin, saboda na’urarsu irin ta Da ce wadda ta zama da ita ake iya ganin abinda ke cikin kwayar halitta.

A yayin da yake bunkasa ka’idarsa, Darwin ya samu sha’awar masana kimyyar juiyn zamani wadanda suka gabace shi, kuma musamman ma Bafaranshen masanin kimiyar rayuwa, Lamarck.10 A ra’ayin Larmarck halittu masu rai suna sadar da dabi’unsu daga yanayin rayuwarsu zuwa mabiyansu daga nan kuma sai su rayu.Misali, Barewa na samuwa ne daga yanayin halittar Kulba ta hanyar tsawaita wuyayensu da tsawo sosai daga wata al’umma zuwa wata don kokarin mika wuyansu zuwa ga rassan bishiyoyi don neman abinci.Darwin ya dauki wadannnan bayanai ne daga rubuce-rubucen Larmarck a matsayin shine dalililn da yasa halittu suke cigaba da samuwa.

Amma Darwin da Lamarck sun fahimci kuskure saboda a lokacinsu, bincike akan rayuwa na iya yiyuwa ne da na’u’rori na kimiyya irirn na da kuma ba gamsashshe ba. Sannan fagen kimiyya irirnsu bincike akakn jinsi da hade-haden magunguna basu ma samu koda a suna ba.Saboda haka, ka’idojinsu dole ne su dogara akakn karfin hasashensu.

A yayin da littafin Darwin yake shan suka, wani masanin tsirrai dan Ausralia mai suna Gregor Mendel ya binciko hukunce-hukuncen gado a 1865. Ba’a samu cikakken labari ba sai a karshen karni, binciken Mendel ya samu gagarumin‘yanci a farkon karni na 1900. Wannan shine lokacin bayyanar kimiyyar jinsuna. Bayan haka, sifar jinsi da kwayoyin dake dauke da jinsi suma an gano su. Ganowar da akayi a shekara ta 1950 dangane da jigidar halittar DNA wanda aka shigar cikin bayanai na jinsi ya jefa ka’idar juyin halitta cikin gagarumar danbarwa.

Dalili kuwa, saboda kasaitaccen tsarin halittar rayuwa da kuma rushewar ka’idar juyin halitta wanda Darwin ya samar.

Wadannan cigaba sunci ace sakamakonsu daga ka’idar Darwin, sun rigaya sun shiga kwandon sharar tarihi. Amma basu shiga ba, saboda wasu jama’a na hakikancewa wajen raya su, gyara su, da yi musu gyaran fuskar da zasu dace a manhajojin kimiyya.Wadannan yunkuri suna iya samun wata ma’ana indai zamu iya fahimtar cewa karkashin ka’idar akwai wasu manufofin akida a maimakon wata kulawa mai hujja a kimiyance.

Kokarin Cigaban Yada Akidar Darwiniyanci

Stephen Jay Gould, bilim adamı

Stephen Jay Gould

Ka’dar Darwin ta shiga cikin rikici mai zurfi saboda hukunce-hukuncen jinsi da aka dgano a farkon kashi na daya bis hudun karni na 20. Duk da haka, wasu gungun masana kimiyya ‘yan gain kashenin Darwin suka dauki himmar samara da mafita. Suka hadu a taro wanda kungiyar Masana binciken halitta ta Amurka a shekara ta 1941 ta shirya. Masana Jinsi kamarsu G. Ledyard Stebbins da Theodosius Dobzhansky, Masana Dabbobi kamarsu Ernst Mayr da Julian Huxley, Masana binciken dadaddun halittu kamarsu George Gaylord Simpson da Glenn L. Jepsen, da masana kimyyar lissafin jinsi kamarsu Ronald Fisher da Sewall Right, bayan doguwar tattaunawa, a karshe suka yarda akan hanyoyin da zasu yiwa Darwiniyanci “cikon maho”.

Wannan jama’a ta mayar da hankali akan asali mai karko wanda yake fayyace haddasa kwayoyin halittu farfadowa-abinda shi kansa Darwin ma ya kasa bayani amma sai yaje ya fake da hujjojin Lamarck.Sunan wannan dabara yanzu “random mutations” wato “bazuwar haddura”. Suka sakewa ka’idar sabon suna wai “The modern synthetic evolution theory’ wato “Ginanniyar Sabuwar Ka’idarJuyin halitta”, wadda aka kirkireta kuma aka kara mata da ilmin haddura akan rubutun zabin yanayin Darwin. A takaice dai, wannan ka’ida ta samu sunan “Neo-Darwinism” wato “Cigaban Darwiniyanci” kuma wadanda suka saka ka’idar a gaba ana kiransu “masu san cigaban Darwniyanci”.

Shekaru masu zuwa zasu zamo wai lokacine na kokarin kawo hujjojin yada akidar cigaban Darwiniyanci. Tun tuni dama an san cewa “haddura” wadanda suke faruwa a cikin jinsin gabobin Halittu sun zama masu illa. cigaban Darwiniyanci yayi kokarin bada hujja akan “kyawun haddura” ta Hanyar fitar da dubun dubatar gwaje-gwajen haddura. Dukkanin yunkurinsu yak are a faduwa wanwar.

Har ila yau, sun yi kokarin sukawo hujja akan cewa farkon kwayoyin halitta wadanda sua rayu sun wanzu ne haka nan ta hanyar yanayin mazauni irin na da wanda akidar ta bayyana, amma irin wannan faduwa ta zakkewa wadannan gwaje-gwaje da yake kokarin bayyanar da hujjar rayuwa ta wanzu ne haka nan ya fadi. Yiyuwar lissafi ya tabbatar da cewa ba wai kawai kwayar gina jiki ko tubalan gina rayuwa ba, har da kwayar halitta da suke ganin zasu iya wanzuwa haka nan, a karkashin tsari irin na da wanda masana juyin halittu suka fada kuma ba ma zai taba tabbatuwa ba koda mafi ingantuwar dakin gwaje-gwaje na karni 20.

Ka’idar cigaban Darwiniyanci ya fadi ta hanyar bayyanar binciken dadaddun halittu. Babu “transitional form” wato “nau’in canjin halitta”, wadanda ake zaton zasu nuna gaskiyar daukakar juyin zamani akan kwayoyin halittu tun daga yanayinsu na da har zuwa matakin bunkasar jinsunan halittu kamar yadda masana cigaban ka’idar juyin zamani suke yin da’awa, inda ba’a taba samun haka ba a ko’ina a fadin duniya. A lokaci guda kuma, ana kokarin kwatanta jinsuna da ake zaton zasu samu daga wasu nau’in jinsi masu bambancin siffofi kuma ake zaton ba zasu taba zama magabatansu ko jikokinsu ba.

Amma cigaban Darwiniyanci bai taba zama wata ka’idar kimiyya ko kankani ba, sai dai kawai wata mummunar akida ce wadda za’a iya cewa ma tana da kama da “addini”. Masanin Darwiniyanci kuma Shaihun Malami a fannin Falsafa da halittun daji Micheal Ruse yayi ikirari da kansa yace:

“Kuma hakika, babu wani kokwanto akan haka, cewa a baya, da kuma yanzu, ga mafi yawan masana juyin halitta, Juyin halitta, na da ayyuka da da kuma alamun da suke, muna iya cewa, tafarki ne ga addinin maguzanci… kuma a ganina, bayyananne ne a kowane matakin juyin zamani a matsayin ka’idar kimiyya ta kulla alakar aiki ga sashin yanayi.”11

Wannan shine dalilin da yasa masu yada ka’idar juyin zamani suke ta kokarin kare ta duk da hujjojin da aka bada wadanda suka rushe ta. Abu daya da ba zasu iya yarda dashi ba shine, shin wane daya daga cikin samfurin da suka gabatar da yada manufar evolution ne daidai. Mafi muhimmanci daga cikinsu shine fasali mai ban kaye wanda aka fi sani da “daidaitaccen ma’auni”.

Jarrabawa da Kuskure: Daidaitaccen Ma’auni

Mafi yawan masana kimiyya wadanda suka yi imani da juyin halitta sun yarda da cigaban ka’idar juyin zamani.A ‘yan shekarun da suka wuce, mabanbancin fasali ya bayyana. Sunansa “daidaitaccen ma’auni”, wannan fasali ya karyata ra’ayin Darwin akan Hadaka, juyin zamani mai bin dan’uwansa da riko da cewa evolution yana yiyuwa maimakon a babban wuri, sai yak are a “tsalle”.

Ernst Mayr, neo darwinizm Theodosius Dobzhansky, neo darwinizm Julian Huxley, neo darwinizm Julian Huxley, neo darwinizm Julian Huxley, neo darwinizm
Ernst Mayr, neo darwinizm Theodosius Dobzhansky, neo darwinizm Julian Huxley, neo darwinizm Julian Huxley, neo darwinizm Julian Huxley, neo darwinizm

A yau, dubban masana kimiyya dake fadin duniya, musamman a Amirka da Yammacin Turai, sun karyata Ka’idar juyin halitta kuma sun dabba’a littattafai da dama akan rashin ingancin ka’idar. Ga kadan daga misalai a sama.

Farkon wadanda suka fara kare wannan da’awa sun bayyana a farkon Shekarar 1970. Masana kimiyyar dadaddun halittun nan su biyu ‘yan Amurka, Niles Eldredge da Stephen Jay Gould, suna da kyakyawar Masaniya akan da’awar da masu raya akidar Darwin suke yi wadda Binciken burbushin halittu ya karyata.Wannan binciken ne ya tabbatar da cewa halittu fa basu wanzu ba ta hanyar juyin halitta. Sai dai sun bayyana ne kwatsam da cikakiyar halitta.

Ma’abota cigaban darwiniyanci sun cigaba da fatan samun mafita Akan matsalar da suke fuskanta-da fatan canjin yanayin da ya buya zai bayyana anan gaba. Duk da ganin wannan fata bashi da tushe, Eldredge da Gould har ila yau basu watsar da akidarsu ta juyin halitta ba, saboda haka suka bullo da sabuwar dabara: daidaitaccen ma’auni. Wannan tana da’awar cewar juyin halitta bai samu a dalilin kananan bambance -bambance ba amma sai dai a sakamakon muhimman canje-canje da afkuwa kwatsam.

Neo-Darwinism's Architects:
Ernst Mayr, neo darwinizm Theodosius Dobzhansky, neo darwinizm Julian Huxley, neo darwinizm

Ernst Mayr

Theodosius Dobzhansky

Julian Huxley

Wannan tsari ba komai bane illa rudu. Misali, baturen nan masanin burbushin halittu O.H.Shindewolf, wanda ya shiryar da Eldredge da Gould, yayi da’awar cewa tsuntsun da ya fara zuwa duniya yazo ne daga kwan halitta mai rarrafe da kafafu hudu; a matsayin “maye gurbi mai nauyi’, wato sakamakon babban “hadari” day a gudana a cikin tsarin jinsi.12 Kamar yadda yazo a cikin fadin ka’idar, wasu daga dabbobin dake tafiya aban kasa sun kusa su zama manyan kifaye ganin sun bi zangon faffadan canji. Wadannan zantuttuka, kwata-kwata sun karya dokokin jinsi, kimiyyar lissafin rayuwa, kimiyyar gwaje-gwaje, kai kace kamar tatsuniyar rikidar kwadi zuwa kada. Duk da haka, ganin irin rashin tabbas da cikas din da cigaban darwiniyanci yake fuskanta, wasu daga cikin masana burbushin halittu sun rungumi wannan ka’ida, wadda take tafi zama abin dariya fiye da Cigaban-Darwiniyancin kansa.

Kadaitacciyar manufar wannan tsari shine samara da bayanai don cike gurbin da Cigaba- Darwiniyanci ya ka sa bayyanawa a daftarin burbushin halittu. Bayan haka, yana da matukar wahala ayi yunkurin bayani akan ratar dake tattare da burbushin halittu a juyin halittar tsuntsaye akab da’awar cewa wai “tsuntsu ya fito ne daga kwan halitta mai rarrafe da kafafu hudu”, a fadar masana juyin halittar, juyawar jinsuna izuwa wasu jinsuna na bukatar babban canji kuma muhimmi a bayanan jinsin halitta. Koda yake, babu wani maye gurbin da yake inganta bayanan jinsin ko kara wani sabon bayani a cikinta. Maye gurbi na hargitsa bayanan jinsi ne kawai. “Hadadden maye gurbi” wanda ya samu a dalilin tsarin daidaitaccen ma’auni babu abinda zai jawo sai “gagarumin” ragi da hargitsa bayanan jinsi.

Wariyar Launin Fatar Darwin

Daya daga cikin muhimman akidojin Darwin wanda yake koma baya shine wariyar Darwin :

ırkçılık, türk düşmanlığı

Darwin na daukar Tarawan yamma a matsayin Wadanda suka kai kololuwar “cigaba” akan sauran bil Adama.Yayin da Darwin zaton wai asalin Mutum daga halittar gwaggon biri ne, kuma har yace wai jinsuna na saurin cigaba da haka akan wasu, kuma har yanzu wadanda aka bari a baya suna da irin waccan halittar. A cikin littafinsa, The Descent of man, wanda ya rubuta bayan ya wallafa The Origin of Species, ya fada baro-baro akan “fifiko mai girma dake tsakanin mazaje daga jinsi daban-daban.” 1 A cikin littafinsa, Darwin ya riki bakaken mutane da mutanen Australia da daidaituwa da gwaggon biri kuma ya sake cewa “wayayyun jinsi” “zasu tafi da wannan” nan da dan wani lokaci. A wasu lokuta masu zuwa, ba mai tsawo ba karnukasuka auna, wayayyun jinsunan dan Adam zasu wanzu, kuma su maye gurbin marasa wayewa a duk fadin duniya. A daidai wannan lokaci kuma gwaggon birran anthropomorphous….babu shakka zasu kare. Tsarar dake tsakanin mutum da sauran makwabtan halittu zai yi fadi, domin zai ratsa har zuwa yanayi mafi wayewa, kamar yadda muke fa ta, fiye da jinsin Caucasian, da wasu jinsunan birrai mafi kankanta daga baboon, kamar dai yanzu tsakanin bakaken mutane ko mutanen Australia da gwaggwon biri.2

Karkataccen tunanin Darwin ba kawai an ka’idantasu ba, amma sun haifar da wani bigire mafi muni wanda ya samara da tushe a wajen wariyar launin fata. Misali ma ace halittu masu rai sun samu kansu a gwagwarmayar rayuwa, Darwiniyanci fa har samu yayi ya shiga ilmin zamantakewa, har ya samu ya canza salon da aka kirawo shi da sunan “zaman takewar Darwiniyanci”.

ırkçılık, türk düşmanlığı ırkçılık, türk düşmanlığı

Zamantakewar Darwiniyanci ta zantar da cewa rayayyun halittu suna zaune a “matakin juyin halitta”, kuma turawan yamma sune mafi “cigaba” akan sauran, sannan daga sauran jinsuna har yanzu suna da siffofi irin na “simian”.

1- Benjamin Farrington, What Darwin Really Said. London: Sphere Books, 1971, pp. 54-56

2- Charles Darwin, The Descent of Man, 2nd ed., New York: A.L. Burt Co., 1874, p. 178

A yau, dubban masana kimiyya dake fadin duniya, musamman a Amirka da Yammacin Turai, sun karyata Ka’idar juyin halitta kuma sun dabba’a littattafai da dama akan rashin ingancin ka’idar. Ga kadan daga misalai a sama.

Haka kuma, tsarin “daidaitaccen ma’auni” ya rushe tun daga matakin farko saboda gazawarsa na kasa bayani akan asalin rayuwa, wanda har ila yau shine ya rushe cigaban tsarin Darwiniyanci tun farko.Tun da babu wani sunadari wanda ya wanzu haka nan, to muhawarar da ake yi akan ko kwayoyin halitta sun samu ne ta haduwar miliyoyin kwayoyin halitta bisa tafarkin “daidaitaccen ma’auni” ko zabin yanayi” ya zama rashin hankali.

Duk da haka, tattaunawa dake zuwa rai idan “juyin halitta” ya zama abin tattaunawa a yau shine cigaban-darwiniyanci. A babi mai zuwa, zamu yi nazari akan ginshikan hasashen tsarin guda biyu, sannan mu kalli daftarin burbushin halittu don mu gwada ko jarraba wannan tsari dashi. Bayan haka, zamu nitsa cikin bayani akan asalin rayuwa, wadda ta rushe tsarin cigaban Darwiniyanci da sauran tsare-tsaren masana juyin halitta kamarsu “juyin halitta ta muhimmin gabatarwa”.

Kafin mu fara, yana da alfano tunasar da mai karatu cewa, hakikanin abinda zamu fuskanta a kowane mataki shine faya-fayen juyin zamani ba komai bane illa tatsuniya, mai hadari, babbar yaudara da ta sha bamban da hakikanin rayuwar duniya. Wani faifai ne da akayi amfani dashi a yaudari duniya sama da shekara 140. Madallah da sababbin binciken kimiyya, saboda haka cigaban kare ta ya zama a karshe abinda ba zai yiwu ba.

 

Footnotes

6. Dan Graves, Science of Faith: Forty-Eight Biographies of Historic Scientists and Their Christian Faith, Grand Rapids, MI, Kregel Resources.

7. Science, Philosophy, And Religion: A Symposium, 1941, BB.13.

8. Max Planck, Where is Science Going?, www.websophia.com/aphorisms/science.html.

9. H. S. Lipson, "A Physicist's View of Darwin's Theory", Evolution Trends in Plants, Vol 2, No. 1, 1988, sh. 6.

10. Although Darwin came up with the claim that his theory was totally independent from that of Lamarck's, he gradually started to rely on Lamarck's assertions. Especially the 6th and the last edition of The Origin of Species is full of examples of Lamarck's "inheritance of acquired traits". See Benjamin Farrington, What Darwin Really Said, New York: Schocken Books, 1966, sh. 64.

11. Michael Ruse, "Non literalist Anti evolution", AAAS Symposium: "The New Anti evolutionism," February 13, 1993, Boston, MA

12. Steven M. Stanley, Macro evolution: Pattern and Process, San Francisco: W. H. Freeman and Co. 1979, sh. 35, 159.

4 / total 22
You can read Harun Yahya's book Rudun Juyin Halitta online, share it on social networks such as Facebook and Twitter, download it to your computer, use it in your homework and theses, and publish, copy or reproduce it on your own web sites or blogs without paying any copyright fee, so long as you acknowledge this site as the reference.
Bayani akan shafin | Make your homepage | Add to favorites | RSS Feed
All materials can be copied, printed and distributed by referring to author “Mr. Adnan Oktar”.
(c) All publication rights of the personal photos of Mr. Adnan Oktar that are present in our website and in all other Harun Yahya works belong to Global Publication Ltd. Co. They cannot be used or published without prior consent even if used partially.
© 1994 Harun Yahya. www.harunyahya.com - info@harunyahya.com
page_top