Evolution Hoax

Rudun Juyin Halitta

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Babi Na 3 Kirkiro Sassan Juyin Halitta

Cigaban tsarin darwiniyanci, wanda zamu dauka a matsayin “babban ginshiki” akan ka’idar juyin halitta a yau, suke yin musu cewar rayuwa ta fara net a hanyoyi ginshikai masu asali guda biyu: “zabin yanayi” da “maye gurbi”. Muhimmiyar da’awar ka’idar itace kamar haka: zabin yanayi dam aye gurbi wadansu ginshikai ne guda biyu. Asalin juyin halitta ya faru ne daga bazuwar maye gurbi inda yake samun wuri a tsarin jinsin abubuwa masu rai. Tsarin dam aye gurbi ya samu ta hanyar zabar ginshikai na zabin yanayi wanda ta sanadinsu ne abubuwa masu rai suke tasowa.

Idan muka zurfafa binciken wannan ka’idar juyin halitta, saboda haka babu wani abu wai shi zabin yanayi ko maye gurbi da yaek bada gudunmawa akakn wannan tsari ga jinsin halitta daban-daban da suke tasowa kuma su rikida zuwa wani jinsi.

Zabin Yanayi

endüstriyel devrim, kelebek

Bakaken kwari ba wata hujja ce a juyin zamani ba, saboda tsarin bai taba fitar da sababbin jinsin kwari ba. Zabin yana daga cikin abinda ya wanzu tuntuni. Haka kuma, labarin bakaken kwari an kirkire shine don yaudara. Wadannan hotuna da kuke gabi (an nuna su kamar hoton gaske) alal hakika matattun kwari ne aka saka musu rowan danko aka manne su a jikin bishiyoyi daga masana juyin halitta.

Kamar yadda tsayin yanayi yake, zabin yanayi abu ne sananne ga masana kimiyyar halitta gabannin Darwin, wadanda suke fassara wannan a matsayin “ginshiin dake kula da canzawar jinsi ba tare da matsala ba”. Darwin shine mutum na farko da ya fara gabatar da wannan da’awa da cewar wannan tsari na dauke da karfin ikon juya halitta sannan kuma ya kafa gaba dayan ka’idarsa akan wannan ginshiki. Sunan da ya bawa littafinsa na nuni da cewar zabin yanayi shine ainihin tubalin da aka gina ka’idar Darwin; The Origin of Species, by means of Natural Selection…

Haka kuma, tun zamaninsu, har yanzu babu wani dalili kwaya daya tak da aka gabatar dake nuna cewar zabin yanayi ne yake jawo canzawar halittu masu rai. Colin Patterson, babban masani a fanning binciken burbushin halittu na gidan tarihi a Ingila, wato Museum of natural history of England, kuma daya daga cikin wanda ake ji dasu a fanning juyin halitta yana mai tabbatarwa da cewa bashi da iko wajen cigaban halitta:

“babu wani wanda ya taba ya kawo jinsuna daga ginshikan zabin yanayi. Babu wanda ya taba kaiwa kusa da ita, kuma mafi yawancin dalilan da ake gabatarwa a yanzu a cigaban Darwiniyanci akan wannan yake.13

Zabin yanayi ya riki cewa halittu masu rai wadanda suke da kyakkyawan mazauni zasu fi samun jikokin da zasu gajesu sannan wadanda ba zasu iya jurewa ba zasu mutu. Kamar misali, dabbobin dake neman mabuya don tsoron manyan dabbobi, a hakikani wadanda suka fi gudu, su suka fi tsira. Wannan Magana gaskiya ce. Amma komai tsawon lokacin da wannan abu zai kasance, ba zai taba

canza wata dabba ta rikide zuwa wata jinsin halitta ba. Dabba zata yi zamanta a yanayinta. Idan muka kalli misalin da masana juyin halitta suka bayar a matsayin karfafan misalan zabin yanayi, muna ganin ba komai bane illa wani yunkuri ne kawai na yaudara.

“Bakaken Kwari”

A shekarar 1986 Douglas Futuyma ya buga a littafi, The Biology of Evolution, wanda aka yarda yana daya daga asali masu bayanin ka’idar juyin halitta daga zabin yanayi ta hanya mai sauki. Mafi shahara a cikin misalansa shine akan adadin launin wutar ‘Yola (kwaro), wanda aka bayyana cewa yayi duhu a lokacin juyin juya-halin masana’antu a ingila. Abu ne mai sauki samun tarihin Bakaken kwari a kusan dukkan littattafan masana a fagen ilmin halitta , ba wai sai a littafin Futuyma ba. An kirkiri labarin ne akan jerin gwaje-gwajen da masana kimiyyar lissafin Ingila da masanin halitta Bernard kelltewell suka gabatar a shekarar 1950, kuma za’a iya takaice shi kamar haka:

Kamar yadda aka rubuta, kusa da lokacin da aka kare juyin juya halin masana’antu a Ingila, launin bangoran bishiyoyin dake kewaye da Manchester sunyi haske. Saboda haka ne, kwari mas duhun launi wadanda suke manned a jikin bishiyoyin zasu iya ganuwa saboda tsuntsayen da suke ci daga jikinsu kuma suna da karancin dammar cigaba da rayuwa. Shekaru hamsin baya, a Woodlands inda surkamin Masana’antu ya kashe kananan shukoki, sannan bawon bishiyoyin yayi tauri, kuma a wannan lokacin kwari masu hasken jiki suka zama ababan farautowa. Sanadiyyar haka, adadinsu ya ragu su kuma bakaken suka karu tunda ba’a saurin ganesu. Masana juyin halitta, a bangare guda, sun fake da nuna yadda kwari masu haske suka rikide izuwa bakaken kwari.

Bayan haka, yana da kyau a gane-duk da cewa mun yarda gaskiya ne – cewar wannan hali ba zai taba zama wata hujja ga ka’idar juyin halitta ba, saboda zabin yanayi bai taba tayar da sabon tsarin halittar da bai taba afkuwa a baya ba.Bakaken kwari dama dasu a cikin kwari tun kafinma ayi juyin juya-halin Masana’antu

Kadan ne daga cikin rayayyun kwari suke canzawa. Kuma basu sam wata sabuwar halitta ko gaba, wadda wadda zata yi sanadiyyar “kebantaccen tsari’. Maimakon a samu kwaro ya rikida zuwa wani jinsin halittar, misali tsuntsu, da dai an sake kara wasu abubuwa a cikin halittar. Ma’ana, wani kebantaccen kari na daban da za’a yi a cikin jinsin halittarta domin a kara wasu bayanai da zasu nuna bayyanannen tsarin halittar tsuntsu.

Bakaken kwari ba wata hujja ce a juyin zamani ba, saboda tsarin bai taba fitar da sababbin jinsin kwari ba. Zabin yana daga cikin abinda ya wanzu tuntuni. Haka kuma, labarin bakaken kwari an kirkire shine don yaudara. Wadannan hotuna da kuke gabi (an nuna su kamar hoton gaske) alal hakika matattun kwari ne aka saka musu rowan danko aka manne su a jikin bishiyoyi daga masana juyin halitta.

Wannan shine amsar da za’a bawa tatsuniyar masana juyin halitta akan Bakaken kwari. Bayan haka, akwai sashen da yafi ko’ina ban sha’awa a tatsuniyar; Ba kawai yadda aka tsara labarin ba, shi kansa labarinma karya ne. Kamar yadda masanin kwayar halitta Jonathan Wells ya bayyana a littafinsa Icons of Evolution, labarin Bakaken kwari, wanda aka rigaya aka saka shi cikin littafin duk wani masanin juyin halitta, kuma ya zama “tambari” ta wannan fuska, kuma babu kanshin gaskiya. Wells ya bayyana a littafinsa yadda gwajin Bernard Kettlewells, wanda aka fi sani da “tabbataccen gwaji” akan labarin, lallai wani rikici ne a kimiyyance. Wasu daga muhimman alamu dake nuna rikicin sune:

An gabatar da gwaje-gwaje masu yawa bayan kettlewell ya bayyana cewa nau’I daya ne daga cikin nau’o’in bakaken kwari suke zama a jikin bishiyoyi, kuma nau’i sukan zauna ne a kananan rassan bishiyoyin. Tun shekara ta 1980, ya bayyana a fili cewar bakaken kwari basa zama ko mannewa a jikin bishiyoyi. Shekaru 25 da aka yi ana bincike, mafi yawancin masana kimiyya kamarsu Cyril Clarke, Rory Howlett, Michael Majerus, Tony Liebert, da Paul Brakefeild wanda ya cike maganarsa da cewa “A gwajin Kettlewell, an tilastawa bakaken kwari ne, saboda haka, wannan sakamakon ba zai samu karbuwa a kimiyance ba.”

Masana kimiyyar da suka jarraba gwajin kettlewell, sunzo da wani sakamakon mai ban sha’awa: Wato kamar yadda ake tsammanin karuwar adadin fararen kwari a sassan dake da karancin gurbata a Ingila, bakaken kwari kuwa sun nunka yawan fararen kwari sau hudu. Ma’ana babu wata alaka tsakanin yawan kwari da rassan bishiyoyi kamar yadda kettlewell yake da’awa da kusan dukkanin asali na masanan.

Kamar yadda bincike yayi nisa, sai kuma rigingium suka canza zani: “kwari akan rassan bishiyoyi” hoton da kettlewell ya dauka, lallai matattun kwari ne. Kettlewell yayi amfani da matattu ne wanda ya shafa musu rowan gam ko ya makalesu da allurai a jikin rassan bishiyoyi da daukar hotunansu. A hakikanin gaskiya, akwai karancin samun dammar daukar hoton kwari lokacin da suke hutawa jikin rassan bishiya sai dai a karkashin ganyayyaki.14

Wadannan hujjoji basu samu fitowa fili daga tsarar masana kimiyya ba sai karshen shekara ta 1990. Faduwar tatsuniyar bakaken kwari, wadda ta zama daya daga cikin jiga-jigan firsoshi a ‘gabatar da juyin halitta” shekaru masu yawa, kuma ya kunyata masa juyin halitta. Daya daga cikinsu Jerry Coyne, yake fada:

Halin dana samu kaina na nuna irin cikas din bincike na, a lokacin da naked an shekara shida, mahaifina ne ya kawo kyautar kirismeti ba Santa ba.15

Saboda haka, “mafi shaharar misalin zabin yanayi” ana juyar dashi izuwa tulin sharer tarihi a matsayin rikici na kimiyya. Kuma dama bazai yiwu ba, saboda zabin yanayi ba “wani ginshikin juyin halitta bane”, sabanin da’awar da masanan ke yi. Bata da hurumin kara sabuwar gaba a jikin rayayyan halitta, cire ta, ko canza ta zuwa wani jinsin halitta.

Shin Zabin Yanayi Zai Iya Bayanin Hadaddiyar Halitta?

Babu wani abinda zabin yanayi ya kara a cikin habaka ka’idar juyin halitta, domin wannan ginshiki ba zai taba karawa ko inganta bayanan gado a jinsina ba.

Zabin yanayi wani ginshiki ne dake kawar da raunanan daidaikun halitta daga jinsuna. Wani karfi ne na gurguzanci wanda yake kiyaye rayayyun jinsuna daga karewa.Bayan haka ma, bashi da wani iko wurin juyar da wata halitta zuwa wani jinsi.

Ballantana ta rikidar da wani jinsi zuwa wani: tarwada zuwa kifi, kifi zuwa kwado, kwado zuwa kada, kada zuwa tsuntsu. Mafi girma wajen kare daidaitaccen ma’auni, Gould, yayi ishara akan karshen tasirin zabin yanayi kamar haka;

Makasudin Darwiniyanci ya tattara ne akan sidira guda: zabin yanayi shine kagaggen karfi dake canza juyin halitta. Babu wanda ya musanta cewa zai taka mumnunar rawa wajen kawar da raunanan jinsi. Ka’idojin Darwin suna karfafa mai karfi ne kawai.16

Wata hanya da masana juyin halitta suke amfani da ita wajen batar da mutane akan zabin yanayi shine kokarinsu na bayyana wannan ginshiki a matsayin mai tsara halitta. Koda yake, zabin yanayi bashi da kasantuwar haka.bashi da iko akan faruwar abu mai kyau ko mara kyau ga halitta. A sakamakon haka, zabin yanayi ba zai taba iya bayanin tsarin rayuwa da sifofi masu “hadaddun gabbai”. Wadannan ginshikai da kuma gabbai sun samu kansu na yin aiki tare gaba daya wanda da za’a samu daya daga cikin gabban baya aiki ko ya raunana da kuwa sauran ba zasu amfanu ba. (Misali, idon mutum ba zai aiki ba matsawar dukkanin jijiyoyin dake tare dashi basu cika ba). Saboda haka, ikon dake zuwa da dukkan bangarorin wuri guda, ya zama zai iya kirge ko sanin abinda zai faru nan gaba kuma ya tanadi dukkan amfanin da za’a samu a karshen al’amarin. Tunda ginshikin yanayi bashi da wani iko, babu wani abu da zai iya yi.

kaplan, ceylan

Zabin yanayi wani ginshiki ne dake kawar da raunanan daidaikun halitta daga jinsuna. Wani karfi ne na gurguzanci wanda yake kiyaye rayayyun jinsuna daga karewa. Bayan haka ma, bashi da wani iko wurin juyar da wata halitta zuwa wani jinsi.

Wannan hujja ce wadda ta rushe ginshikin ka’idar juyin halitta, Darwin ma ya nuna damuwarsa: “Idan za’a iya gwada mana a fili yadda wata hadaddiyar gaba zata iya wanzuwa, wanda kuwa ba zai taba yiyuwa samuwar hakan daga yawaicin, ingantattun, kuma abin yiwa kwaskwarima, lallai da ka’ida ta karye baki daya”17

Zabin yanayi na fitowa ne kawai daga daidaikun jinsina wadanda basu da karfi ko kuzari. Bat a iya samara da sabon jinsi, sabon bayani dangane da kwayoyin jini, ko sabuwar gaba. Ma’ana, ba zata iya yin wani abu da zai motsa ba. Darwin ya yarda da haka inda yake cewa: “Zabin yanayi ba zai iya tabuka komai ba har sai zababbun sauye-sauye sun samu kafar tabbata”.18 Wannan shine dalilin da yasa cigaban-Darwiniyanci ya jera maye gurbi kusa da zabin yanayi a matsayin “dalilin canji mai alfano”. Kuma kamar yadda zamu gani, hadari zai iya zama “sanadin canji mai illa”.

Maye Gurbi

dna, mutasyon

Mutations add no new information to an organism's DNA: As a result of mutations, the particles making up the genetic information are either torn from their places, destroyed, or carried off to different places. Mutations cannot make a living thing acquire a new organ or a new trait. They only cause abnormalities like a leg sticking out of the back, or an ear from the abdomen.

Maye gurbi wata irin karyewa ko mayewa ce wadda take faruwa a cikin jigidar halittar DNA, wanda aka gano a cikin faifan kwayar komayya wadda ake samu a cikin halitta mai rai kuma itace take bada dukkanin bayanai da suka shafi gado ta fuskar jini.Wadannan karyewa ko mayewa suna samuwa ne a dalilin faruwar wani abu kamar konewa ko juyawar wani sunadari mai karfi. Dukkan maye gurbi hadari ne kuma yana iya lalata sunadaran dake hade cikin faifan komayya wanda yake samar da DNA ko ya canza masa wurare. Mafi yawancin lokuta, sukan haifar da illa mai yawa da kuma canjin da komayyar ma ba zata iya gyara shi ba.

Maye gurbi, wanda masana juyin halitta suke boyewa daga bayansu, ba wani na’ura ce ta tsafi ba wadda take canza wata halitta izuwa wani yanayi mai kololuwar siffa ba. Maye gurbi na da illa mai cutarwa. Canjin da take samarwa yana kama ne kawai da mutanen da suke cikin Hiroshima, Nagasaki, da Chernobyl: wato, mutuwa, nakasa, da gurbatar fatar jiki… Dalilin wannan mai sauki ne: DNA yana da faffadar siffa da illa mai kewayawa wadda take iya cutar da siffar. B.G. Ranganathan yace:

Maye gurbi wasu halittu ne kanana, masu kewayawa, ga cutarwa. Sukan samu amma mafi kyawun samuwarsu shine su zama basu yi illa ba. Wadannan ayyuka nasu guda hudu suna nuna cewa maye gurbi ba zai iya shiryarwa izuwa bunkasa juyin halitta ba. Kewayawar canjin dake afkuwa a cikin kwayar halitta takan zama bata yi aiki ba ko ta cutar. Kewayawar canjin Agogo ba zai inganta Agogon ba.Sai dai ya zamana ta illata shi ko mafi kyau yaki aiki. Girgizar kasa bata inganta birni, sai dai rushewa.19

Babu mamaki, cewa har yanzu ba’a gano wani amfani a maye gurbi ba. An tabbatar da cewa dukkanin maye gurbi mai cutarwa ne. Masana Kimiyyar juyin halitta Warren Weaver yayi karin bayani akan rahoton da Kwamitin Bincike Akan Illar Bazuwar Kwayar Komayya, wanda aka kafa don ya bincika afkuwar maye gurbi wanda ake zaton makaman nukiliya wadanda aka yi amfani dasu a yakin duniya na biyu suka haifar:

Da yawa zasu girgiza akan kalaman da aka fi sani cewa dukkan jinsin maye gurbi yana hadari. Domin maye gurbi wani bangare ne yunkurin juyin halitta. Yaya kyakkyawan fasali – zai shafi juyin halitta zuwa makurar siffa a rayuwa – sakamakonsa yake samuwa daga maye gurbi wanda kuma dukkaninsa mai hadari ne?20

Dukkanin yunkuri don a “samar da maye gurbi mai amfani” ya karye. A shekarun da suka wuce, masana juyin halitta sun yi gwaje-gwaje masu yawa don su samar da maye gurbi a cikin kwari domin suna saurin kyankyasa, kuma zasu yi saurin nunawa. Saboda haka, lokaci bayan lokaci wadannan kwari suka zamanto ana kyankyasarsu, duk da haka bukata bata biya ba. Masanin tsarin halittar jini Gordon Taylor yake cewa:

A duk dubban kwarin da aka kyankyashe a gwaje-gwajen da muka gabatar a duk fadin duniya a sama da shekaru hamsin, babu wani sabon jinsin da ya karu…kai ko daidai da sabon sunadari.21

Wani mai bincike, Micheal Pitman, yayi bayani akan dalilin da yasa gwaje-gwajen da aka yi akan kwarin ya karye:

Morgan, Goldschmidt, Muller, da sauran masana sun jingina kasawar kwarin da yawan zafi, sanyi, haske, duhu, da kunar sunadarai. Dukkan nau’in maye gurbi, na zahiri ko wanda yake nuna illa ta bayyane, an samardasu duka. Juyin halittar da mutum ya san’anta? Ba haka nan ba: kadan daga cikin talibanban din da masanan suka yi sun so rayuwa a wajen kwalbar da ake shayar dasu. Bisa al’ada suna mutuwa ne, su bushe ko su rikida zuwa wata mummunar sifa.22

Dukkani Maye Gurbi Na Da Hadari
mutasyon, sinek

A. NORMAL 1. Eye, 2. Antenna

B. MUTANT 3. Leg

Hagu: yadda tsuntsu fitar da jiki (drosophila)

Dama: yadda kafafuwansa suke fita daga kai, maye gurbin dake afkuwa ta kunar hasken rana.

çernobil, el

Wannan yaro dake hagu hadarin nukiliya
Chernobyl ne same shi.

Gurbataccen hadarin maye gurbi dake afkuwa a jikin mutum.

Wannan haka yake koda ga halittar mutum. Dukkanin wata halitta ta maye gurbi dake jikin dan Adam tana da sakamako mai illa. Akan haka, masana juiyn halitta sun sako wani shurin hayaki da kokarin nuna misalan wadannan maye gurbi masi illa a matsayin wata “shaida akan juyin halitta”. Dukkanin maye gurbi da ya afku a jikin dan Adam ya haifar da tawaya a halittar mutum ta zahiri, kamarsu mongol, down syndrome, zabiya, wada ko cutar cancer. An gabatar da wadannan cututtuka ne a littattafan masanan a matsayin misalai akan “sassan juyin halitta akan aiki”. Babu bukatar ace, hanyar da take kai mutane ga nakasa ko rashin lafiya ba zata zama “sashe akan juyin halitta” ba – ya kamata juyin halitta ya samar da nau’in halitta kyakkyawa wanda zaifi jure rayuwa.

A takaice, akawai muhimman dalilai guda uku dake nuna kasawar maye gurbi wajen taimakawa cikin tabbatar da hujjojin masana juyin zamani:

1) Sakamakon maye gurbi nada hadari: Tunda yake bazuwa suke yi, shi yasa suke lalata kwayoyin halittar dake shigarsu. Dalili ne yake nuna mana cewa da zarar wabi abu mara kan gado ya shiga cikin wani cikkakken kuma kyakkyawan tsari ba zai tama da komai ba illa ya bata shi. Hakika, babu wani “maye gurbi mai amfani” da ya taba samuwa.

2) Maye gurbi bai kara wani sabon bayanai ga jigidar halittar DNA ba : kwayoyin da suka hadu suka samar da bayanan halittar gado ko sun tattara zuwa mazauninsu, ko sun halaka, ko kuma sun koma wasu wuraren. Maye gurbi ba zai iya samarwa wata halitta sabuwar gaba ko wani asali ba. Babu abinda suke kawowa sai nakasa kamar kafa ta fito daga baya, ko ido ya fito daga ciki.

3) Idan ana so maye gurbi ya bayyana a halittu masu zuwa, lallai ne ya zamanto yana aiwatuwa a cikin tsarin haihuwar kwayar halitta: bazuwar canjin dake afkuwa a jikin kwayar halitta ko gabar jiki ba zata mayu a jikin halitta mai zuwa ba. Misali, idan kwayar idon mutum ta grubace ko wani abu ya same ta, wannan ba zai yiwu ya koma zuwa ga ‘ya’yan da zai haifa nan gaba ba.

A takaice, abu ne mai wuya halitta mai rai ta hanyar juyin halitta, saboda a hakikani babu wasu sasanni da zasu haifar da samuwarsu. Wannan Magana na gasgata shaidar daftarin burbushin halittu, wanda ya bayyana a fili cewa al’amarin babu kamshin gaskiya.

 

Footnotes

13 Colin Patterson, "Cladistics", Interview with Brian Leek, Peter Franz, March 4, 1982, BBC.

14 Jonathan Wells, Icons of Evolution: Science or Myth? Why Much of What We Teach About Evolution is Wrong, Regnery Publishing, 2000, sh. 141-151

15 Jerry Coyne, "Not Black and White", a review of Michael Majerus's Melanism: Evolution in Action, Nature, 396 (1988), sh. 35-36

16 Stephen Jay Gould, "The Return of Hopeful Monsters", Natural History, Vol 86, July-August 1977, sh. 28.

17 Charles Darwin, The Origin of Species: A Facsimile of the First Edition, Harvard University Press, 1964, sh. 189.

18 Ibid, sh. 177.

19 B. G. Ranganathan, Origins?, Pennsylvania: The Banner Of Truth Trust, 1988.

20 Warren Weaver, "Genetic Effects of Atomic Radiation", Science, Vol 123, June 29, 1956, sh. 1159.

21 Gordon R. Taylor, The Great Evolution Mystery, New York: Harper & Row, 1983, sh. 48.

22 Michael Pitman, Adam and Evolution, London: River Publishing, 1984, sh. 70.

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