Evolution Hoax

Rudun Juyin Halitta

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CHAPTERS OF THE BOOK

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Babi Na 9 - Labarin Juyin Halittar Mutum

A bubuwan da suka gabata mun ga cewa babu wasu sunadaren da ka iya yanayi ya jagoranci wanzuwar halittu da kuma cewar jinsin halittu sun wanzu amma ba ta hanyar juyin halitta ba, sai dai wanzuwarsu ta afku kwatsam kuma da cikakkiyar halittar da ake iya zama yanzu. Wato, halittarsu akayi daban-daban. Don haka, ya tabbata kenan “Juyin halittar mutum,” shima, labari ne da bai taba faruwa ba.

To, wane abu shine samuwar tulin burbushi wanda masana sukayi kurarin gina zane–zanensu akai. Cikin tarihi baki daya, sama da jinsin gwaggwan biri 6,000 ne suka ta~a rayuwa kuma da yawansu sun gushe.A yau, jinsin gwaggwan biri 120 ne suka rage a bankasa. Wadannan kimanin jinsin gwagwgwon biri 6000, yawancinsu babu irinsu, sune suka bada cikakkiyar dama ga masana juyin halitta.

Masanan sun rubuta labarin juyin halittar mutum tare da shirya wasu kwarangwal wadanda zasu yi dai dai da yadda suke so don su sanar da tsarin daga karami zuwa babban dake hargitsa kwarangwal din wasu dadaddun jinsin mutum tsakaninsu. Kamar yadda labarin ya fada, mutane da gwaggwon biri na zamani suna da magabata daya. Juyawar lokaci tasa wadannan halittu suka wanzu kuma wasu daga cikinsu suka zama gwaggwon biri na yanzu wasu kuma suka bi tafarkin juyin halitta suka zama mutanen yanzu.Koda yake, dukanin bincike akan burbushin halitta, kwayoyin halitta da sanin halitta sun nuna cewar wannan da’awar juyin halitta kirkira akayi kuma bashi da tushe kamar dai sauran. babu wata alamar shaida da aka gabatar dake tabbatar da cewa akwai dangantaka tsakanin mutum da gwaggwon biri, sai dai kawai jabun zane, hargitsa burbushin halitta, da zane–zanen yaudara da kalamai masu batar da hanya.

Daftarin burbushin halitta ya nuna mana cewa cikin tarihi baki daya, mutane a mutane suke kuma gwaggwan biri kullum suna nan a gwaggwan biri. Wasu burbushin da masanan suka dauka magabatan mutum ne, mallakar wasu alumomi ne da suka rayu har izuwa kusan shekaru 10,000 da suka shude–sannan kuma suka kare. Haka kuma, yawancin alumomi wanda suke raye yanzu suna da tsari bayyananne da halaye irin na wadanan dadaddun alamomin mutane, wanda masana suka yi da‘awar sune magabatan mutane. Duk wadannan shaida ce akan cewa mutum bai taba samuwa ta hanyar juyin halitta ba a wani zamani a tarihi.

Mafi muhimmanci gaba daya shine akwai bambance-bambance masu yawa tsakanin birrai da mutane kuma babu daya daga cikinsu wanda zai wanzu tahanyar juyin halitta daya daga cikinsu shine “Bipedality” kamar yadda zamuyi bayaninsa nan gaba, Bipedality wani abu ne kebantace ga mutum kuma shine mafi muhimmanci a cikin sauran abubuwan dake bambance mutum daga sauran dabbobi.

Kirkirar Bishiyar Iyalin Mutum

Da’awar Darwiniyanci akan riko da cewa wai mutumin wannan zamani ya samu ne daga wasu irin halittu masu kama da gwaggwon biri. Yayin da suke daganta abin bisa tsarinhalitta wanda sukace yafarane a shekaru miliyan 4 zuwa 5 da suka shude, har da da’awar cewa wasu “tsaka-tsakin sifa” tsakanin mutumin yanzu da magabatansa.

A fadar wannan labari, sun ambata cewa“nau’i" hudu:

1. Australopithecuse (jam’in sifar Auslralopithecus)
2. Homo habilis
3. Homo erectus
4. Homo spiens

Masanan sunkira abinda suka kira farkon magabatan mutane da birrai “Australopithecus" wato ma’ana “birin Afrika Takudu. Australopithecus, ba komai bane illa tsohon jinsin gwaggon biri da ya dade, kuma yana na’u’i jinsina. Wasu daga cikinsu suna da manyan jiki, wasu kuwa kanana da sirara.

Masanan sun fassara juyin halittar mutum a matsayin ‘homo’ wato mutum. Kamar yadda suka ce, halittun dake jinsin homo sunfi Australopithecus wayewa, kuma basu da bambanci da yawa da mutumin yanzu. Mutanen zamaninmu, wato Homo sapiens, sun samu a matakin karshe na juyin halittar wadannan jinsunan.

Burbusai kamar Mutumin Java, Mutumin Pekin da Lucy, wadanda suka fito a kafofin watsa labarai lokaci bayan lokaci kuma suna nan a cikin littattafansu da litattafan koyarwarsu, suna daya daga cikin jinsuna hudun da aka lisafta a sama.

Kashin Dadashi Guda Ya Haifar Da Wata Fassara
ramapithecus, ramapithecus ailesi
ramapithecus, hayali çizim
ramapithecus, çene fosili

jinsin Ramapithecus na farko da aka gano: dadashin dake da sashe biyu. (a dama). masanan sun zana hoton Ramapithecus, iyalinsa da mazauninsu, ta hanayar dogaro da wadannan dadasan.

Wasu daga cikin tsaka-tsakin yanayi da suka gabata, kamar su Ramapithecus, dole ne a cire su daga has ashen bishiyar juyin halitta bayan an gano cewar gama-garin gwaggwon biri ne.69

Ta hanyar alakanta su da cewa “Australopithecus > Homo habilis > Homo erectus > Homo sapiens”, masanan sunce kowannensu magabacin daya ne. Haka kuma bincike na kusa da masana burbushin halittu suka gabatar ya tabbatar da cewa Australopithecines, Homo habilis da Homo erectus sun wanzu a bangarori daban-daban na duniya a zamani daya. Bayan haka, wani sashe na mutum da aka lisafta a matsayin Homo erectus sun zauna a duniya har zuwa wannan zamanin. Homo sapiens neandarthalensis da Homo sapiens sapiens ( mutumin yanzu) sun rayu a nahiya daya. Wannan al’amari ya dada tabbatar da rashin ingancin da’awarsu ta cewa magabatan juna ne.

A fili yake cewa, dukkanin binciken da suka yi a kimiyance ya nuna cewa daftarin burbushin halittu baya bayanin zangon tafiyar juyin halitta kamar yadda suka fada. Burbushin da suke da’awar na magabatan mutane ne, bayan kuma mallakar wani jinsin mutum ne ko jinsin gwagwgwon biri ne.

saboda haka, wane jinsine na mutum wannene na birrai? shin za’a iya kiran daya daga cikinsu a matsayin tsake – tsakin sifa? Wajen nemo amsoshin nan, bari mukalli kowanne kashi.

Australopthecus : Jinsin Gwaggon Biri

Australopithecus, wato kashi na farko, ma’anarsa “birin kudu” ana zaton wannan halitta ta fara bayyana ne a Afrika shekaru miliyan 4 da suka shude kuma sun rayu shekaru miliyan 1 data shude. Akwai kashe–kashe daga cikin jinsin Australopithecines. Sannan suna zaton cewa sune mafi tsufa a cikin jinsunan Australopthecus shine A. Afarensis. Dagashi sai A. Africanus,wanda yake da siraran kasusuwa, sannan A. Robustus, shi kuma yanada manyan kasusuwa shikuwa.A Boisei, wasu masu bincike sun kare a matsayin wasu jinsuna daban kuma wasu sunce kashi daga cikin jinsunan A. Robustus.

Dukkanin jinsunan Austrlopithecus birrai ne dadaddu wanda suke kama da birran wannan zamani. Tsarin kwarangwal dinsu iri daya ne da gwaggwan birran zamaninmu. Sassan hannayensu da tafin kafafunsu wanda suke amfani dasu yayin da suka zo hawa bishiya kamar dai gwaggwan yanzu kuma tafin kafarsu na iya makale rassan bishiya. Gasu gajeru (tsawonsu130cm. (inchi51)) kuma kamar birran yanzu, mazan Australopithecus sunfi matansu girma. Yawancin bayanan da ake yi akan gabobinsu kamar kokon kansu, kusancin idonsu, fikar dadashinsu, jerin hakoransu da suke karyar abu dashi, dogwayen hannu, gajerun kafafu, duk shaida ce da take nuna rashin bambancinsu da birran yanzu.

Masanan sunyi da’awar cewa koda yake Australopithecines suna da tankwara kamar biri, amma suna iya tafiya a tsaye kamar mutum ba kamar sauran birrai ba.

Wannan da’awa ta ‘tafiya a mike ‘ ra’ayine na masana burbushin halitta kamar Richard Leakey da Donald C. Johanson shekaru da dama. Duk da haka yawancin masana kimiyya sun yi bincike sosai game da tsarin kwarangwal din Australopithecus kuma sun rushe waccan magana. Zuzzurfan binciken da wasu masana su biyu suka yi, daya daga Ingila dayan daga Amurka, Lord Solly Zuckerman da Farfesa Charles Oxnard, akan jinsunan Australopithecus, ya nuna cewa wadannan halittu ba sa mikewa kuma suna motsawa kamar yadda birran yanzu suke yi. Bayan karantar kasusuwan wadannan burbushin na tsawon shekaru 15 tare da taimakon gwamnatin Birtaniya, Lord Zuckerman tare da abokan aikinsa su biyar sun bada sakamakon cewa Australopithecines ba komai bane illa gama garin jinsin biri kuma basa mikewa tsaye, koda yake zuckerman din ma masanin juyin halitta ne. 70 Idan muka koma kan Charles E. Oxnard, shima wani masani ne wanda ya shahara akan bincikensa ga lamarin, ya kwatanta tsarin kasusuwan Australopithecine dana orang – utan.71 A karshe, a shekarar 1994, wasu jama’a daga jami’ar Liverpool ta Ingila sun gabatar da cikakken bincike don a kawo karshen al’amarin. Daga karshe, suka yanke cewa ‘Australopithecines suna tafiya da kafafu da hannaye”.72

A takaice, Australopithecines dai basu da alaka da mutane kuma jinsin gwaggwan biri da tuni sun kare.

Australopithecus Aferensis: Dadadden Gwaggwan Biri
australopithecus, kafatası

A nan sama kwanyar burbushinAustralopithecus aferensis AL444 – 2 ne, Kasa kuma kwanyar biri ne wannan za Mani. Kamaninsu ya dada tabbatarwa Cewa A.aferensis gama – garin jinsin Gwaggwan biri ne ba tare da wata Alaka ta kama ga ‘siffar mutum’

lucyFosili,iskelet

Burbushin da aka fara samowa a kasar Habasha (Ethiopia), hadar, wanda akezaton Jinsin Australopithecus aferensis ne: AL288-1Ko ‘Lucy’. Da dadewa, masana juyin halitta sun sha gwagwarmayar tabbatar da cewa Lucy na iya tafiya a mike: amma sabon binciken da aka yi ya tabbatar da cewa wannan gama – garin dabba ce da take tankwara.

Burbushin Australopithecus aferensis mai lamba AL333 – 105 wanda yake a nasa mallakar wani saurayi na daya wannan jinsi. Shi yasa har yanzu ba’a gabatar da bincike akan kwanyar ba

Upper : Australopithecus
Lower : Present-Day - Chimp

şempanze, kafatası
lucy fosili, kafatası

HOMO Habilis: Gwaggwan Birin Da Aka Ce Mutum Ne

Kasaitacciyar kama tsakanin kwarangwal da tankwararriyar sifar Australopiyhecines da chimpanzee da karyata da’awar cewa wadannan halittu suna tafiya a mike, ya haifar da matsaloli ga masana burbushin juyin halittar mutum. Dalili kuwa shine, kamar yadda hasashen juyin halitta ya tsara, Homo erectus yazo bayan Australopithecines. Kamar yadda ma’anar “homo” wato “mutum” take nufi, Homo erectus ya shiga ajin mutum kuma kwarangwal dinsa a mike yake. Sannan kwanyarsa, ta nunka ta Australopithecines girma sau biyu. canjin yanayin da aka samu na kai tsaye daga Australopithecines, wanda kamar birin chimpanzee yake, zuwa Homo erectus wanda yake da kwarangwal din da bashi da bambanci da na mutumin yau, kusan wannan ma an cire daga lissafi koda a ka’idar masana juyin halitta. Saboda haka, “alaka”wato, “tsaka – tsakin tsari” ya zama abin nema. Maganar Homo habilis ta taso ne daga wani mawuyacin hali.

Batun Homo habilis ya fito a 1960 daga bakin wadansu “masu farautar burbushi” gaba dayansu. Kamar yadda suka fada, wannan sabon jinsi wanda suka kira Homo habilis yana da babbar kwanya, yana iya tafiya a mike kuma yana amfani da dutse da kera – keran katako. Saboda haka, tana iya yiwuwar magabacin mutum ne.

Sababbin burbushin da aka samu a karshen shekarar 1980, gaba daya ya canza wannan batu. Wasu masu bincike kamar Bernard Wood da C. Loring Brace wanda ya dogara akan sababbun burbushin da aka gano, yace Homo habilis, wanda ma’anarsa shine “mutumin dake iya amfani da kere-kere” za’a sanya shi a matsayin Australopithecus habilis wato ma’nar ‘Gwaggwan biri Afrika ta yamma da yake iya amfani da kere–kere’, saboda Homo habilis yana da sifofin da suke kama dana birin Australopithecines. Yana da dogwayen hannaye, gajerun kafafu, da irin tsarin kwarangwal mai kama da na Australopithecines. “yan yatsun hannuwa dana kafa sun dace da dafe biahiya. Tankwararriyar sifarsa tayi kama da ta birran yanzu. Kwanyarsu mai girman miter 600 shima yana cewa lalllai birrai ne. A takaice dai, Homo habilis, wanda aka gabatar a matsayin wani mabanbancin jinsi daga masana, shima a hakikani jinsin birrai ne kamar su Australopithecines.

Homo Habilis: Wani Dadadden Gwaggon Biri
homo habilis kemikleri, homohabilis

Da dadewa, masana Juyin halitta sun riki cewa halittun da suke kira Homo habilis na iya tafiya a mike. Sai Sukayi tunani cewa sun samo alakar da take nuni canjin halittar daga biri zuwa mutum. Duk da haka, sabon burbushin homo habilis wanda Tim white ya " gano a 1986 mai suna OH 62 ya karyata wannan abu. Wadannan burbushin guntattaki ya nuna cewa Homo habilis nada dogayen hannaye da gajerun kafafuwa Kamar birin wannan zamani. Wannan burbushi ya kawo karshen zaton da ake yi cewa Homo habilis wata mi}a}}iyar halitta ce mai tafiya a tsaye. A gaskiyance, Homo habilis ba komai bane illah wani jinsi gwaggwan Biri.

lucy fosili, kafatası

“OH7 Homo habilis”ana iya ganinsa daga kasa a gefen hagu shine akafi sani da jinsin Homohabilis. Wannan burbushi yana da manyan turaman hakora. Kuma hakoran gabansa kanana ne. turamansa zagayayyu ya zama irinna birran wannan zamani. A wadansu kalmomi, Homo habilis ya tabbata cewa halitta ce daga jinsin gwaggwan biri.

Binciken da za’ayi shekarun da zasu zo zasu tabbatar da cewa Homo habilis bashi da bambanci da Australopithecines, kwanyarsu da burbushion kwarangwal OH62 wanda Tim white ya gano ya nuna irin kankantar kwanyar da yake da shi, da dogon hannunsa da gajeriyar kafafunsa wanda wannan sifa ce take sanyawa su iya dafe bishiyoyi, kamar birran yanzu.

Cikakken jawabi da Holly Smith, masaniyar binciken halittun Amurka a 1994 ta nuna cewa Homo habilis ba “homo” wato, “mutum” bane, amma “biri” ne. Nazarin da tayi akan hakoran Australopithecus, Homo habilis, Homo erectus da Homo neandertalensis, Smith, tace kamar haka:

A takaice binciken burbushin akan sanfuran nan don wadatar da wadannan sharuda, yanayin bunkasar Hakoran autralopithecines da Homo habilis an kwatantasu da birran Afrika. Su kuma homo erectus an kwatanta su da mutane.73

A wannan shekara, Fred Spoor, Bernard Wood da Frans Zonneveld, da duk wani kwararre a fannin Anatomy, suka yi irin wannan jawabi ta hanya daban-daban. An bi wannan ta hada bayanai da nazari akan rabin nadin cikin kunnen mutane dana birrai wanda yake taimakawa. Kasusuwan da suke sanya mutum yayi tafiya a mike ya sha bamban dana birrai su da suke tankware. Nannadar cikin kunnen Australopithecus da kuma wasu, samfurin Homo habilis wanda Spoor, Wood da Zonneveld suka nazarta iri daya ne dana birin yanzu. Nadin cikin kunnen Homo erectus iri daya ne da mutanen yanzu.74

Wannan bincike ya samar da muhimman sakamako guda biyu:

1. Burbushin da ake kira Homo habilis a gaskiya ne basu fito a cikin ajin “homo”, wato mutane ba, amma sun danganci Australopithecines, wato birrai.

2. Dukkan Homo habilis da Australopithecines rayayyun halittu ne tankwararru, kuma suna dauke da kwarangwal din biri, basu da wani gami ko dangantaka da mutane.

Homo Rudolfensis: Fuskar Da Aka Hada A Karkace

There was
No Transition from Ape To Man
iç kulak, yarım çember kanalları

1. Semicircular Canals
2. Ampullae
3. Ampullary Nerves
4. Saccule
5. Cochlea

6. Endolymph-filled Canals
7. Posterior Semicircular Canals
8. Anterior Semicircular Canals
9. Horizontal Semicircular Canals
10. Cristae and Ampullary Nerves

A comparative analysis of the semi-circular canals in the inner ear in both humans and apes shows that the fossils long portrayed as the forerunners of human beings were all in fact ordinary apes. The species Australopithecus and Homo habilis had the inner ear canals of an ape, while Homo erectus had human ones.

Homo Rudolfensis suna ne da aka sanyawa wasu taragutsan burbushin da aka samo a shekara ta 1972. Ajin da wannan burbushin yake wakilta an tsara shi a matsayin homo Rudolfensis saboda wadannan taragutsan da aka samo a kusa da kogin Rudolf a kenya. Mafi yawa daga cikin masana burbushin halitta sun yarda da cewa wadannan burbushi basa cikin jinsin da aka fayyace amma halittu ne da ake kira homo Rudolfensis a hakika homo habilis ne.

Richard leakey, wanda ya hako ~urbushin, ya gabatar da kwanya mai suna “KNM – ER 1470” kuma yace sun rayu shekaru miliyan 2.8 da suka shu]e’a .matsayin wani gagarumin bincike a tarihin ilmin binciken asalin dan Adam kuma yana tafiyayyar ma’ana. Kamar yadda Leakey yake cewa, wannan halitta,wadda take da karamin kokon kai kamar Australopithecus sannan gatada fuskar mutum, shine ~ataccen tsaka–tsakin halitta tsakanin Australopithecus da mutum. Duk da haka,bayan wani gajeran lokaci, sai aka gane cewa fuska mai kama da mutum KNM – ER 1470 wato kwanyar da aka nuna ta a shafukan farko na mujallun kimiyya, sakamako ne na bangarorin taragutsan kwanya --- wanda aka hadasu da gangan. Farfesa Tim bromage, wanda yayi nazari fuskardan Adam, ya bayyana gaskiyar al’amarin tare da taimako na ‘ura mai kwakwalwa ta gwajegwaje a shekara ta 1992:

Yayin da (KNM – 1470) aka fara kerata, an sanya fuskar a jikin kasusuwan da suke jikin kwanyar kan a damance, kamar dai yadda fuskokin mutanen wannan zamani suke. Amma bincike na kusa dake nuna alakarsa ya nuna cewa a rayuwa fuksar lallai ta zama an jona ta a daidai, don ta nuna sifa mai kama da biri, maimakon Australopithecus.75

Masanin burbushin halitta J.E. Cronin yayi maganar batun kamar haka:

Tarihin Juyin Halittar Mutum 95

…fuska ce da aka kera ta, flattish naso-alveolar clivus, (dawo da fuskar australopithecine), mai gajeruwar kwanya (a tsakani), kakkarfan dadashi da manyan turame (kamar yadda ragowar jijiyoyi suka nuna) dukkaninsu dadaddun gabobi ne wadanda suka hadu da irinsu A. africanus.76

C.Lorring Brace daga jami’ar michingan ya karkare irin sakamakon saboda binciken da shima yayi akan dadashin da zubin ha}ora 1470 kuma yace girman dadashin da turaman sun nuna cewa ER 1470 na dauke da fuska da hakoran Australopithecus.77

Farfesa Alan Walker, masanin, burbushin halitta daga Jami’ar John Hopkins wanda yayi bincike mai yawa akan KNM – ER 1470 kamar Leakey, ya dogara da cewa ba za’a lisafta rayayyun halittu a karkashin “homo” wato jinsunan mutum kamar Homo habilis ko rudolfensis, amma sabanin haka dole ne a sanya su karkashin jinsunan Australopithecus.78

A takaice, rabe-rabensu kamar Homo habilis ko Homo Rudofensis wadanda aka gabatar dasu a matsayin tsaka-tsakin sifa tsakanin Australopithecines da Homo eractus duk kire ne. Kamar yadda mafi yawancin masu bincike suka tabbatar ayau, wadannan halittu dangine daga jinsunan Australopithecus. Dukkanin sifofin sun bayyana cewa jinsunan biri ne.

Masana juyin halitta da binciken burbushin halittu su biyu, Bernard Wood da Mark Collard sun tabbatar da haka ta hanyar bincike, wanda aka buga a mujallar Science ta 1999. Wood da Collard sun bayyana cewa homo habilis da homo rudolfensis (Skull 1470) jerin kwanya duka kira ne, kuma burbushin da ake danganta su dasu na Australopithecus ne:

Kwanan nan, aka danganta burbushin jinsuna zuwa homo saboda girman kwakwalwa, da batun harshe magana da aikin gadar hannu, da karyar cewa wai suna amfani da dutse don bukatunsu na yau da kullum. Daga dan abinda ba za’a rasa ba, ma’ana da amfanin dake tattare da juyin halittar mutum, kuma ratar Homo, ana ganin kamar ma bata da matsala. Amma...bayanai na kusa, sabon bayanin dake hujjar dake da ita, da kuma takaitar daftarin burbushi ya rusa dalilan yarda da halittar Homo.

...a al’adance an sanya burbushin jinsunan izuwa Homo daya ko mafi yawa daga sharudda hudu... ya bayyana yanzu cewa , babu daya daga ciki da ya karbu. Kwanyar kwakwalwar nada matsala saboda girman ita kanta kwakwalwar. Akwai alamar tambaya akanta. Bayan haka, akwai tabbatacciyar shaida da take nuna cewar ba za’a dogara da girman kwakwalwar ba, kuma bangarorin da suka shafi karshe a kwakwalwarba, ba,a sarrafasu don su nuna alamun dadewa ba kamar yadda manazarta suka fada…

...ta wani bangaren, tare da alakar jinsunan H. habilis da Rudolfensis da ake dangantasu, halittar Homo ba halitta ce mai kyau ba. Saboda, H. habilis da H. rudolfensis (ko homo habilis sansu lato ga wadanda basu shiga cikin karkasuwan halittun ‘farko na Homo’) YAKAMATA A CIRESU daga Homo. Abun yi anan shine canza daya ko duka biyun halittun zuwa asalin halittar farko ta jinsin mutum, ba za’a ce babu matsala ba amma MUN YARDA CEWA, ZUWA YANZU, DUKA HABILIS DA HOMO RUDOLFENSIS YAKAMATA SUN CANZA ZUWA HALITTAR AUSTRALOPITHECUS. 79

Cikon maganar Wood da Collard ta nuna abinda muka gama bayani yanzu. Babu tsohuwar magabaciyar halittar mutum’ data wanzu a tarihi. Halittun da ake gabatar da su akan haka duk birrai ne wadanda suke dangantuwa zuwa jinsin halittar Australopithecus. Daftarin burbushin ya nuna cewar babu wata alaka ta juyin halitta tsakanin wadannan dadaddun gwaggwan birraai da Homo, wato, jinsunan mutane, wadda suka bayyana kwatsam a daftarin.

Homo Erectus da Abinda ya Gabata: Halittar Mutum

700 Thousand Year Old Mariners
antik denizciler, gemi mühendisleri

"Early humans were much smarter than we suspected..."

News published in New Scientist on March 14th 1998 tells us that the humans called Homo Erectus by evolutionists were practicing seamanship 700 thousand years ago. These humans, who had enough knowledge and technology to build a vessel and possess a culture that made use of sea transport, can hardly be called "primitive".

Kamar yadda ya zo a tsare. Tsare-tsaren masana juyin halitta, juyin halittar Homo sapien na cikin gida shine kamar haka: farko homo eractus, sauran Homo sapiens archaric mutumin da Neanderthal,daga baya mutumin Cro-magnon daga karshe kuma mutumin yau. Dukkanin wadannan nau’o’i a zahiri jinsin mutane ne. Bambancin dake tsakaninsu bai wuce bambancin dake mutumin dake zaune a arewacin duniya, da bakin mutum mai siffar biri da kuma bature.

Bari mu fara jarraba Homo eractus, wanda ake cewa shine mafi dadewar jinsunan mutum. Kalmar “erect’ “mikewa”, tana nufin, Homo erectus”ma’ana “mutumin dake tafiya a mike masanan sai da ta kaisu da rarrabe wadannan mutane daga sauran ta hanyar kara musu “mikewa”, saboda dukkanin burbushin Homo KNM-NW 15000 ko kwarangwal din yaron Turkana a dama, kusan shine dadaddan burbushin mutum da aka taba samu. Binciken da akayi akan burbushin mallakar wani yaro ne dan shekaru 12 tsawansa 1.80 idan ya girma. Burbushin wanda yayi kama da jinsin Neanderthal, yana daya daga cikin shaidun da suka rushe tatsuniyar juyin halittar mutum.

KNM-NW 15000 ko kwarangwal din yaron Turkana a dama, kusan shine dadaddan burbushin mutum da aka taba samu. Binciken da akayi akan burbushin mallakar wani yaro ne dan shekaru 12 tsawansa 1.80 idan ya girma. Burbushin wanda yayi kama da jinsin Neanderthal, yana daya daga cikin shaidun da suka rushe tatsuniyar juyin halittar mutum.

Masanin juyin halitta Donald Johnson yayi bayani wannan burbushin kamar haka: “yana da tsawo da siranta. Zubin jikinsa da kirar yatsunsa iri daya ne da na mazauna Africa. Girman yatsunsa sunyi dai dai da na irin mazajen turawan nahiyar Amurka ta Arewa”. erectus a mike suke ba kamar Autralopithecines ko homo habilis. Babu bambanci tsakanin kwarangwal din mutumin yanzu da na Homo erectus.

Dalilin da yasa wanann suka fassara homo erectus da dadewa shine girman kwanyar kansa (900-1100cc) wadda tafi mutun yau kankanta da kurin sassasn idanu. Haka kuma akwai mutane masu yawa a duniya a yau da suka girma kwanyar kai kamar homo erectus (misali) da wasu almomi da su suke kauranrun idano (misali Australian Aborigines).

An yarda cewa bambancin girman kirinya baya nuni izuwa bambancin lokacin da aiwatarwa. Hankali na tattare ne a tsarin cikan kwakwalwa ba girmanta ba. 80

Burbushin da suke sanya duniya ta san Homo erectus sune mutumin Pekin da mutumin Java wadanda aka samo su a nahiyar Asiya. Daga baya aka gane cewar su ba abin dogaro bane. Mutumin Pekin na kunshe ne da wasu sunadarai na kayan karau wadanda asalin nasu sun bata kuma mutumin Java an jona kwanyarsa ne da wasu taragutsan kasusuwa wadanda aka samo su mitoci kadan daga inda aka tona shi, kuma babu wata alama da take nuna cewa wadannan suna cikin irin rayayyun jinsin mutum.wannan shine dalilin da yasa burbushin Homo erectus din daaka samo a Afrika ya samu karin muhimmanci. (Yakamata a lura da wasu burbushin da aka ce Homo erectus ne kuma suka ahiga karkashin bangare na biyu da masana juyin halitta suke cewa “Homo ergaster”. Akwai sabani tsakanin jinsunan akan wannan batu. Zamu dauki wadannan burbushin a karkashin Homo erectus).

Mafi shaharar samfurin Homo erectus wadanda ake samo a Afrika shine “Narikotome homo erectus” ko “yaron Turkana” wanda aka gano kusa da kogin Turkana a Kenya. An tabbatar cewa burbushin na yaro ne dan shekara 12, wanda zai yi tsawon mita 1.83 a yayin girmansa. Mikakken kwarangwal dinsa bashi da banbanci da na mutumin yanzu. Akan wannan ne, Alan Walker, masanin burbushin halittun Amurka ya nuna shakkun cewa “mai matsakaicin sani akan cututtuka zai iya bayanin banbanci a tsakanin kwarangwal dinsa da na mutum”.81 Dangane da kwanyarsa kuwa, Walker yace shima “yana kama da Nearnderthal sosai”.82 Kamar yadda zamu gani a babi mai zuwa, nearnderthals jinsin mutanen yanzu ne. saboda haka, Homo erectus shima jinsin mutumin yanzu ne

Homo erectus: Dadadden Jinsin Mutum
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Homo erectus “mikakken mutum”dukkan burbushin da suke cikin wannan jinsi mallakar jinsin mutum ne Tunda mafi yawan burbushin homo erectus basu da sifofi iri daya. Akwai wahala ka fassara wadannan mutune bisa tsarin kwanyarsu. Wannan shine dalilin da yasa masana daban – daban sukayi fassara da zane-zane da yawa. A saman layi za aga kwanyar da aka samo a Koobi Fora Afrika a 1975 wadda zaka iya fassara Homo erectus. A saman dama kwanya ce, Homo ergaster KNM – ER 3733, wadda ake da tambaya akan wasu sassan

Girman kwanyar wadannan burbushin, Homo erectus sun kai tsakanin 900 -1100cc wadannan alkaluma suna iyakar girman kwanyar mutum.

KNM-NW 15000 ko kwarangwal din yaron Turkana a dama, kusan shine dadaddan burbushin mutum da aka taba samu. Binciken da akayi akan burbushin mallakar wani yaro ne dan shekaru 12 tsawansa 1.80 idan ya girma. Burbushin wanda yayi kama da jinsin Neanderthal, yana daya daga cikin shaidun da suka rushe tatsuniyar juyin halittar mutum.

Masanin juyin halitta Donald Johnson yayi bayani wannan burbushin kamar haka: “yana da tsawo da siranta. Zubin jikinsa da kirar yatsunsa iri daya ne da na mazauna Africa. Girman yatsunsa sunyi dai dai da na irin mazajen turawan nahiyar Amurka ta Arewa”. erectus a mike suke ba kamar Autralopithecines ko homo habilis. Babu bambanci tsakanin kwarangwal din mutumin yanzu da na Homo erectus.

Har masanin juyin halitta Richard Leaker shima sai da yace bambancin dake tsakanin Homo eractus da mutumin yanzu ba komai illa bambancin launin jinsi:

Har ila yau mutum zai iya ganin banbanci a siffar kwanyar, yanayin zubin fuska, durin idanu da sauransu. Wadannan bambance-bambance basu kai yadda muke sani a yau tsakanin jinsunan mutane ba. Banbancin halitta yana tasowa ane yayin da ake samu yawan halitta ya samu rabuwa a tsakani lokaci mai tsawo.83

Farfesa William Laughlin daga Jami’ar Connecticut yayi cikakken bincike akan mutanen da suke zaune a mafi nisan Arewacin Amurka da mutane da suke zaune a tsibirin Aleut kuma ya ga alamun cewa wadannan mutane suna da makusanciyar kama da Homo eractus. A karshen bincikensa Laughlin ya amsa cewar mabanbantan jinsuna a hakikanin jinsuna ne na Homo sapiens (mutumin yanzu).

Idan muka duba yawan banbancin dake tsakanin Wadannan daddun kungiyoyi kamarsu Eskimos da mutanen daji, wandanda aka samu mallakar wani jinsi ne na Homo sapiens, ina ganin dai dai ne cikewa da cewa Sinanthropus (sanfurin mikakken mutum- ALC) yana cikin wadannan mabanbantan jinsinsu. 84

Hujjar cewa Homo eractus yafi yadda ake fassara shi, kuma da cewar burbushin da ake danganta su da Homo eractus basu da banbanci da Homo sapiens kamar yadda ake daukarsu wani jinsi na daban anfi amfi jin wannan magana a tsarar masana kimiyya.mujallar American scientist ta tattara bayanan tattaunawar da akayi akan batun, har sai da aka yi taro akan haka a shekara ta 2000:

Mafi yawancin mahalarta taron da ake yi a dakin taro na Senckenberg sun afka cikin muhawara akan matsayin kasusuwan Homo eractus wanda Milford Wolpoff na jamiar midingan, Alan Thorne na jami”ar Canberra da wasu abokansu suka fara. Sunyi zazafun musun cewa Homo erectus dai bashi da tushe na zama jinsi kuma sai an cire shigaba daya. Dukkanin mambobin halittar Homo, daga shekaru miliyan biyu zuwa yanzu, jinsi daya masu bambanci kamanni, wato Homo sapiens, ba tare da wani karyewar yanayin halitta ko rabe – rabensu ba. Taken wannan taro shine, Homo erectus bai wanzu ba. 85

Maganar cewa “homo erectus dai wanzu ba” yana nufin “Homo erectus ba wani jinsi ne daban da Homo sapiens ba, amma jinsi ne a Homo sapiens”.

A daya bangaren, “Homo erectus, jinsin mutum, da jinsin birrai wadanda suke gabaci Homo erectus a tarihin “juyin halittar mutum’,(Australopithecus, Homo rudolfensis).ma’na mutanen farkon da suka bayyana a daftarin burbushin halittu kwatsam nan take ba tare da wani tarihin juyin halittarsu ba.Babu wata alama dake nuna yadda aka haliccesu.

Duk da cewa, yanzu wannan hujja ta sabawa falsafanci da akidojin masana juyin halitta. A sakamakon haka, sai suka yi kokarin su nuna cewa Homo erectus, lallai Jinsin mutm ne, a matsayin halitta mai rabi mutum – rabi gwaggwan biri.

A kere-keransu na Homo erectus, sai suka zama gwaggwon biri, da gangan. A daya hannun, da zane iri daya, sai suka mutuntar da birrai kamar Austrlopithecus ko Homo habilis. Ta wannan hanya, sai suka yi kokarin “kwatanta” birrai da mutane da rufe kofar duk wata kafar dake bambanta su.

Nearnderthals

 
Neandertaller, sahte çizim

FUSKAR KARYA:

Koda yake babu bambanci da mutumin yau, Neanderthals har zana su masanan na daukar su a birrai.

Nearderthals mutane ne wadanda suka bayyana shekaru dubu 100 da suka shude a nahiyar turai kuma suka gushe ko suka bace tare da wasu jinsuna - kusan shekaru dubu 35 da suka shude. Banbancinsu da mutumin yanzu shine zubin kwarangwal dinsu yafi taushi kuma kwanyar su ta dan fi girma. Neanderthals jinsin mutane ne kusan kowa ya yarda da FUSKAR KARYA: Koda yake babu bambanci da mutumin yau, Neanderthals har zana su masanan na daukar su a birrai.

wannan hujja a yau. masana sunyi iya kokarinsu na bayyana su matsayin “jinsuna marasa wayewa”, dukkanin binciken yanuna cewa babu banbanci daga “mutumin” dake tafiya a titi yanzu. Wani masani akan fagen, Erik Trinkans, masanin binciken burbushin halittu daga jami’ar New Mexico ya rubuta cewa:

Cikakken kamancen kwarangwal din Neanderthal da ya rage da mutane ya nuna cewa babu wani abu a Neanderthal dake nuna fuskar jabu; koda yake babu banbanci da mutunin yau har yanzu masana juyin haltta suna daukar neaderthel.86

Da yawa daga masu bincike na wannan zamani sun fassara mutumin neanderthal da cewa wani sashin jinsi mutumin yanzu ne suke kiransa ‘’Homo sapiens neadertalensis’’ Binkicin ya sheda cewa neanderthals suna bunne matattunsu, suna kara kayan kida, kuma suna da al,adu iri daya dana Homo sevens wadanda suke a wancen zamani. Na sanya maganata akan turba,l neanderthals jinsin mutane ne da suka gushe.

Neanderthals: Karfafan Mutane
neandertaller, neandertal iskeleti neandertaller, neandertal kafatası

A sama za, a iya ganin Homo sapiens neanderthalensis, kwanya Amud 1 da aka samo a Isra’ila. Mutumin nearderthal anfi saninsa da karfin jiki da gajarta. An yi kiyasin cewa wanda ke mallakar wannan burbushi yana da tsawon mita 1.80. Ba’a taba ganinkwanya mai girman ta sa ba: 1740cc. Saboda wadannan, wannan burbushi yana daya daga cikin muhimman shaidun da suke rusa da’awar cewa Neanderthals dadaddun jinsuna ne.

Homo Sapiens Archaic, Homo Heider Bergausis da mutumin Cro- Magnon

Archaic Homo sapiens shine matakin karshe kafin mutumin yanzu a kirkiranran tsarin juyin halitta, Hakika, masana basu da ta cewa akan mutumin, saboda akwai karacin bambamcinsu na mutanen yanzu. Har wasu masu binkice ma sunce akwai ragowar irin wadanan mutane yanzu yana a raye, kuma suna nuna Aborgines a kasar Australia a matsayin misali. Kamar dai Homo sapiens, Aborigines suna da kakkauran ido, tankwararren tsarin turamen hakura, da karancin girman kwanya. Haka kuma, muhimmin binciken da ake yi ya gano cewa wadannan mutane sun zauna a kasar Hungary da wasu kauyukan kasar Italy “yan shekarun da basu dade. Kungiyar da masana juyin halitta suke kira Homo heiderbergensis, a hakika kamarsu daya da Homo sapiens. Dalilin da yasa aka saka musu sunaye shine bambancin fahimta tsakanin masanan.

Duk burbushin dake karkashin Homo heilderbergensis yananuna cewa jama’ar da suke kama da turawan yanzu sun rayu shekaru dubu 500 kuma daga farko sun rayu a Ingila da spain shekaru dubu 740.

An kiyasta cewa mutumin cro-magnon ya rayu shekaru dubu 30 da suka shude. Yana da zagayayyen kwanya da faffadan goshi. Kwanyarsa mai fadin 1,600 cc tafi ta mutumin yanzu girma. Kwanyarsa na da kakkauran girar ido, da tankwararran kasusuwan baya wanda yayi kama dana Neanderthal da Homo erectus.

Neander thals: Karfafan Mutane A sama za,a iya ganin Homo sapiens neanderthalensis, kwanya Amud 1 da aka samo a Isra’ila. Mutumin nearderthal anfi saninsa da karfin jiki da gajarta. An yi kiyasin cewa wanda ke mallakar wannan burbushi yana da tsawon mita 1.80. Ba’a taba ganinkwanya mai girman ta sa ba: 1740 cc. Saboda wadannan, wannan burbushi yana daya daga cikin muhimman shaidun da suke rusa da’awar cewa Neanderthals dadaddun jinsuna ne.

Koda yake (cro –magnon) ana ganin jinsin turawa ne, siya da girman kwanyarsa tayi kama data wasu jinsuna a Afrika da na Arewacin duniya a yau. Dangane da dogaron da aka yi na kamance,anyi kiyasta cewa cro – magnon jinsin Afrika ne. wasu binciken burbushin halittu da ake yi sun gabatar da cewa cro – magnon da Neanderthal sun hade wuri guda kuma suka kafa harsashen al’umomin wannan zamani.haka kuma, a yau, an yarda cewa.

An kiyasta cewa irin jinsin cro-magron har yanzu suna raye a nahiyoyi daban-daban a Afrika da kuma bangaren Salute and Dordogne a France mutanen da suke kama daya dasu anyi nazari suna zaune a kasashen Poland da Hungary.

Rayayyan Jinsuna masu Shekaru Daya a Matsayin Magabatan Juna

Allura Mai Shekaru Dubu 26
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Burbushi mai kayatarwa dake nuna cewa Neanderthals suna da ilmin dinki .Allura mai shekaru dubu 26 (D. Johanson, B. Edgar From Lucy to Language, p. 99)

Abubuwan da muka bincika a baya sun bamu cikakken hoto: labarin “juyin halittar mutum” gaba dayansa kire ne. Idan kuma ana so ne lallai a tabbatar da wanzuwar wannan bishiyar iyali, yakamata ace an samu samfurin tsakanin yanayin biri zuwa mutum da daftarin burbushin wannan tsarin. Haka kuma akwai gagarumin rata tsakanin birrai da mutane. Tsarin kwarangwal, girman kwanya da yanayin tafiya a mike ko tankwarewa ya bambanta tsakanin mutane da birrai (mun fadi cewar binkicen da aka gabatar a 1994 gurungurtsin cikin kunne, ya tabbatar da cewa Australopithecus da Homo habilis birrai ne, shi kuma Homo erectus a matsayin jinsin mutun).

Wani karin binciken da akayi mai muhimmanci ya nuna cewa babu bishiyar iyalan wadannan jinsunan da aka gabatar a matsayin magabatun juna da suka rayu a bi-biye. Idan kamar yadda masana juyin halitta suke da’awa, daga nanne suka zama Homo erectus, to kuwa zamanin da suke a raye dole ne su taho a jere. Saboda haka, babu irin wannan tsarin.

Kamar yadda masana suka kiyasta, Australopithecines sun rayu daga shekara miliyan 4 da suke shude har zuwa miliyan daya ta shude. Halitta da aka kira Homo habilis, a daya bangaren, ana zaton sun rayu har izuwa shekaru miliyan 1.7 – 1.9 da suka shude. Homo rudolfensis, wanda ake ganin yafi Homo habilis “wayewa da cigaba”, an samu cewa ya kai shekaru miliyan 2.5 – 2.8. wato dai ace Homo rudolfensis ya kusan girmar Homo habilis da shekara miliyan 1 – wanda ake ganin shine “ magabacin”. A daya hannun kuwa, shekarun Homo erectus yana komawa izuwa shekaru miliyan 1.6 – 1.8 da suka shude, ma’ana samfurin Homo eractus ya bayyana aban kasa daridari da shekarun da ake kiran magabatansa wato, Homo habilis.

Alan Walker ya tabbatar da wannan hujja da cewa “akwai shaida daga gabacin Afrika na jinkirin rayayyen karamin Australopithecus wanda suka fara rayuwa tare da H. Habilis, sannan da H. erectus “. Louis Leaker ya gano burbushin Australopithecus, Homo habilis da Homo eractus kusan daya na tare da dayan a cikin oldurai Gorge, Bed II layer.

A hakikani babu wannan bishiyar iyali. Wani masanin burbushin halittu daga Jam’ar Harward, Stephen Jay Gould yayi bayanin cikas din dake samun juyin halitta duk da cewa shima maganin juyin halitta ne.

Menene tsanin mu idan akwai hadakar dangogi uku na jinsuna (A.africanus, da H.habilis), shin babu dayan da ya fito daga dan’uwansa? Haka kuma, babu a dayan ukun da ya fitar da tsarin juyin halitta a lokacin daya rayu aban kasa. 89

Idan muka matsa daga Homo erectus zuwa Homo sapiens, zamu ga har ila yau cewa babu wani bishiyar iyalin da za’ayi magana akai .akwai shaidun dake nuna cewa Homo erectus da archaic Homo sapiens sun rayu har zuwa shekaru dubu 27,000 har ma shekaru dubu 10,000 kafin zamanin mu. A kurmin kow a kasar Australia, an gano wasu kwayoyin Homo erectus shekaru dubu 13,000da suka shude. A tsibirin java an gano kwanyar Homo erectus mai shekaru dubu 27, 000.90

Sirrin Tarihin Homo Sapiens

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Daya daga cikin shahararrun mujallun masanan, sun saka fuskar mutum mai shekaru dubu 800 a farkon shafinta da tambaya “Shin wannan fuskar magabatanmu ce?”.

Mafi kayatarwa kuma muhimmiyar hujjar dake rushe ginshikin kirkirarriyar bishiyar iyalin juyin halitta shine tsohon tarihin mutumin zamani. Rahoton masana binciken burbushin halittu ya nuna cewa mutane Homo sapiens wadanda suke kama damu sun rayu har tsawon shekara miliyan daya da suka shude.

Louis Leakey ne, shahararren masanin burbushin halittu, wanda ya fara gano wani abu a wannan fanni. A 1932, a yankin Kanjera dake tafkin Victoria a Kenya, Leakey ya gano burbusai wadanda mallakar ‘yan tsakiyar zamanin Pliestocene ne kuma basu da bambanci daga mutanen zamani. Haka kuma, ma’anar tsakiyar zamanin Pliestocene shine shekaru miliyan da suka shude.91Tun daga lokacin da aka gano haka sai bishiyar iyalin juyin halitta ta kife, wasu daga cikin masana a fannin binciken burbushin halitta suka kore bishiyar. Duk Da haka Leakey ya dage cewa kwatancensa akan hanya yake.

Daf da mantawa da wannan batu, wani burbushin haliita da aka gano a kasar Spain a 1995 ya bayyana a hanya mai ban sha’awa cewa tarihin Homo sapiens yayi tsufan da ba’a zace shi haka ba. An gano shine a wani kogo mai suna Gran Dolina a nahiyar Atapuerca dake Spain daga wasu masu bincike ‘yan kasar su uku daga jami’ar Madrid. Burbushin mallakar fuskar wani yaro ne dan shekaru 11 wanda yayi kama da mutanen zamani sosai. Kuma duk da haka, shekarunsa 800,000, tun daga lokacin da yaron ya mutu. Mujallar Magazine ta bada cikakken labari a cikin bugunta na watan Disamabar 1997.

Wannan burbushi ya girgiza ferreras, wanda shine yake jagorantar hake – haken da ake yi a Gran Dolina. Ferreras Yace;

Muna zaton wani babban abu, wani babban abu “dadadde”. Tsammaninmu akan yaro mai shekaru 800,000 kamar yaron Turkana yake. Amma abin da muka gano fuskar zamanin nan ce …. A gani na wannan abun takaici ne …… wadannan abubuwa sune suke girgiza ku. Gano burbushin ba; Gano burbushin shima abu ne wanda zatonsa yake da wuya, kuma haka ne. amma abin takaici shine ka gano abinda haka tunanin mallakar na zamanin nan ne, amma a zamanin da. Kamar dai neman wani abu ne …. Kamar dai rediyo mai daukar Magana a Gran Dohina. Kaga wannan zai bada mamaki. Bama zaton samun kaset da rediyo mai daukar magana a Lower Pleistocene. Nemo fuskar zamani da ita duka daya ne. Munyi mamaki lokacin da muka ganta. 92

Burbushin ya haskaka hujjar cewar tarihin Homo Sapien za’a iya fadada shi izuwa shekaru 800, 000 baya. Bayan tasowa daga wancan abin al’ ajabi, masanan wadanda suka gano burbushin suka shirya cewa mallakar wani jinsi ne, saboda a cewar bishiyar iyalin juyin halitta tace babu wani Homo sapiens da suka taba rayuwa shekara 800,000. Saboda haka, sai suka kirkiri wani jinsi wai shi “Homo antecessor” Kuma ya kunshi kwanyar Atapuerca a karkashin wannan fassara.

Tafiya da Kafa tana Barazana ga Juyin Halitta

Bayan daftarin burbushin da muka gama tattaunawa, fattadar dangataka tsakanin mutum da gwaggwon biri ta karyata juyin halittar mutum. Daya daga cikin shingen ya shafi yanayin tafiya.

Mutane ne tafiya a mike ne akan kafafansu biyu. Wannan wata sifa ce te musamman da babu ita a kowane irin jinsi. Wasu dabbobin sune de iyaka wajer tafiya yayin da suka tsaya akan kafufunsu biyu. Babbobi kamar biri da karen daji (bear) na iya yin haka amma ba koda yaushe ba, kamar dai lokacin da suke kokarin tsunko abinci kuma iya wannan lokacin ne. Yawanci kashinsu ne yake kwantawa gaba kuma sune tafiya ne akan duga-dugansu hudu.

Shin tafiyarsu de kafa biyu samo csali ne daga yunkurin da suke yi na canzawa daga hudu kamar yadda masanan suke da’awa?

Ba haka bane. Bincike ya nuna cewa juyin tafiya daga hudu zuwa biyu bai tabe afkuwa ba, ballanta ace yana da saukin afkuwa. Daga farko dai, tafiya da kafa biyu ba hujjar juyin halitta bace. Yadda birrai suke tafiya hanya ce mai sauki, sauri da walawa akan ta mutum. Domin mutum ba zai iya tafiya da tsalle daga bishiya zuwa wata ba tare da taka kasa ba, kamar chimpanzee, ballantana yayi gudun kilo mita 125 a sa’a guda ba, kamar cheetal. Sabanin haka, tunda mutum yana tafiya ne akan duga-dugansa biyu, tafiyarsa a kasa bata da sauri. Saboda wannan dalili ne yasa ya zama daya daga cikin jinsunan halittun da basu da kariya ta fuskar tafiya. Kamar yadda yazo a dabarorin juyin halitta, bai kamata birrai su taso don suyi tafiya da kafa biyu ba, mutane ne yakamata su taso don suyi tafiya da kafa hudu.

Wata rusash-shiyar da’awar juyin halitta itace tafiya da kafa biyu bata nufin “cigaba” akan tsarin Darwiniyanci. Wannan tsari shine tushen juyin halitta, ta bukaci cewa babu wata katanga tsakanin biyu da hudu. Bayan haka, tare da binciken da yayi ta hanyar na’ura mai kwakwalwa a 1996. Baturen nan masanin binciken burbushin halittu Robin Crompton, ya tuke zancensa de cewa: Halitta mai rai zata iya tafiya de kafa biyu ko hudu. 98 Amma ace wai za’a samu mai tafiya rabi-da-rabi wannan ba zai yiwu ba saboda karfin tara kuzari. Wannan shine dalilin da yasa ba za’a samu rabin kafa biyu ya wanzu ba.

Ratar dake tsakanin mutum da gwaggwon biri bata tsaya akan tafiya da kafa biyu ba. Batutuwa da yawa suna nan an kasa bayaninsu kamar girma kwakwalwe da ikon magana da dai sauransu. Elaine Morgan, masanin burbushin halittu, yayi ikirari dangane da wannan batu:

Hudu daga cikin ababuwa masu razanarwa akan mutane sune: (1) Me yasa suke tafiya da kafa biyu? (2) Me yasa suka rasa gashin jikinsu? (3) Me yasa kwakwalwarsu take da girma? (4) Me yasa suka koyi magana? Amsar da masana addini akan wadannan tambayoyi sune: (1) ‘Bamu sani ba’; (2) ‘Bamu sani ba’; (3) ‘Bamu sani ba’; (4) ‘Bamu sani ba’ Jerin tambayoyin zasu iya yin tsawo ba tare da an bada amsoshin ba 99

Juyin Halitta: Addinin Da Babu Kimiyya

maymun iskeleti, insan iskeleti

Sabon binciken da aka gabatar ya bayyana cewa bai zai taba yiwuwa tankwararren bayan biri bay a mike tsaye don yin tafiya

Lord Solly Zuckerman daya ne daga shahararru kuma masanin kimiyyar de ake girmamawa a Turai. Shekaru masu yawa, yayi nazari akan daftarin burbushin halittu kuma yayi cikakken bincike akai. An girmama shi da mukamin “Lord” wato shaihin malami saboda gudunmawarsa ga kimiyya. Zuckerman dan juyin halitta ne. Saboda haka, jawabinsa akan juyin halitta bai zama wanda yake ya kauce hanya ba. Bayan shekaru da yin bincike akan burbushin da aka shigar cikin juyin halittar mutum, sai ya cika da cewar babu wani abu wai shi bishiyar iyalin mutum.

Zuckerman yayi wani “bakan gizon kimiyya”. Yayi shi ne a jere daga wadanda ya dauka babu kimiyya a ciki. Kamar yadda Zuckerman ya fada akan bakan, mafi “kimiyya” a cita-wato, wajen dogara akan karfafan hujjojin kimiyya sune ilmin sunadarai da kimiyyar lissafi. Bayansu sai ilmin halitta da kuma ilmin dabi’ar halitta. Acan karshen bakan, sune bangaren da ya sanya su “marasa kimiyya”, sun hada da “tsinkayar gabbai masu tasiri” – ilmin aika tunani daga mutum zuwa wani ba tare da amfani da kalmomi, rubutu ko wata hanya ta sadarwa ta al’ada ba- kuma a karshe da “ juyin halittar mutum”.

Zuckerman yayi bayanin wannan tunani na sa:

Sai muka matsa don mu tabbatar da gaskyar fannonin da ake zuton akwai kimiyyar halitta cita, kamar tsinkayar gabbai ko fadin tarihin burbushin mutum, idan da gaske muke komai na iya yiwuwa-kuma idan akwai mai karfin imani shima wari lokali yakan yarda da sabanin abubuwa a lokaci daya.100

 
, sahte çizim

The myth of human evolution is based on no scientific findings whatsoever. Representations such as the above have no other significance than reflecting evolutionists’ imaginative wishful thinking.

Discovering Archeology, mulimmiyar mujalla akan asalin mutuno, tace, “Neman labarin magabatan mutum yane bade zafi fiye wuta” a cikin kasidar Robert Locke, editan mujallar, ya rawaito ikirarin shahararren masanin burbushin halittu Tim White:

Mun ji takaici akan “dukkannin tambayoyin da muka ka sa amsawa” 101

Kasidar ta sake bitar rushewar ka’idar juyin halitta akan asalin mutum da rashin madogara akan farfagandar dake yaduwa akan wannan gaba:

Koda yake babu wani bangaren kimiyya da yake shan suka fiye neman asalin mutum. Manyan masana burbushin halittu sunyi sabani akan tushen bishiyar iyalin mutum. Sababbin bangarori suna ta tasowa ba don komai ba, sai don su mike kuma su mutu don su samar de sababbin burbusan da za’a gano. 102

Wannan hujja ta samu karbuwa daga wurin editan sananniyar mujallar nan Nature, wato Henry Gee. A littafinsa In Search of Deep Time, an buga shi a 1999, Gee ya danganta shirin juyin halittar mutum” a matsayin kiren da wani ya zauna ya shirya shi, ya tsara shi don ya dace de sabanin mutane” ya kara de cewa:

Daukar wani ra’ayin burbushi da yin da’awar cewa suna wakiltar wani jinsi ne wannan ba binciken kimiyya bane wanda za’a iya jarrabawa ba, amma wani zance ne kawai de yake daukar nauyi irin ne tatsuniyar kwanciyar barci – ganishadi, wani lokaci kamar umarni, amma ba dai kimiyya ba. 103

Shin me yasa masama kimiyya de yawa ne suke ta karfatawa akan wannan akida? Me yasa suke ta kokarin ganin ka’idar ta cigaba da dorewa, gashi suna ta karbar hujjoji masu fada dasu kuma suna jefar da shaidun da suka samo?

Amsar dai itace suna jin tsoron cewa zasu fuskanci hujjoji idan suka jefar da ka’idar juyin halitta. Hujjar da zasu fuskanta idan suka jefar da juyin halitta itace Ubangiji ne ya halicci mutum. Haka kuma, duban irin zace –zacensu da imanin de suka yi akan falsafar jari – hujja, kalmar halitta ba a bace karbabba ga ‘yan juyin halitta ba.

Saboda haka, suna yaudarar kansu, har ma da duniya, ta hanyar amfani da kafofin watsa labarai. Idan sun ka sa samo burbushin da suke nema, sai su “kirkire” su ko ta hanyar zana hotuna ko kuma kera shi sannan su fito su nuna cewa ai ya taba wanzuwa kuma ga irinsa. Bayan kafofin watsa labarai wadanda suke yada akidar jari-hujja, suna kokarin yaudarar jama’a da cusa musu tatsuniyar juyin halitta a kwakwalwar su.

Duk irin kokarin da zasu yi, gaskiya a fili take: mutum dai bai wanzu ta hanyar juyin halitta ba amma Ubangiji ne ya halicce shi. Saboda haka, yana komawa izuwa gareshi ko baya so sai ya dauki wannan nauyin.

 

Footnotes

69 David Pilbeam, "Humans Lose an Early Ancestor", Science, April 1982, sh. 6-7.

70 Solly Zuckerman, Beyond The Ivory Tower, New York: Toplinger Publications, 1970, sh. 75-94.

71 Charles E. Oxnard, "The Place of Australopithecines in Human Evolution: Grounds for Doubt", Nature, Vol 258, sh. 389.

72 Fred Spoor, Bernard Wood, Frans Zonneveld, "Implication of Early Hominid Labryntine Morphology for Evolution of Human Bipedal Locomotion", Nature, Vol 369, June 23, 1994, sh. 645-648.

73 Holly Smith, American Journal of Physical Antropology, Vol 94, 1994, sh. 307-325.

74 Fred Spoor, Bernard Wood, Frans Zonneveld, "Implication of Early Hominid Labryntine Morphology for Evolution of Human Bipedal Locomotion", Nature, vol 369, June 23, 1994, sh. 645-648.

75 Tim Bromage, New Scientist, vol 133, 1992, sh. 38-41.

76 J. E. Cronin, N. T. Boaz, C. B. Stringer, Y. Rak, "Tempo and Mode in Hominid Evolution", Nature, Vol 292, 1981, sh. 113-122.

77 C. L. Brace, H. Nelson, N. Korn, M. L. Brace, Atlas of Human Evolution, 2.b. New York: Rinehart and Wilson, 1979.

78 Alan Walker, Scientific American, vol 239 (2), 1978, sh. 54.

79 Bernard Wood, Mark Collard, "The Human Genus", Science, vol 284, No 5411, 2 April 1999, sh. 65-71.

80 Marvin Lubenow, Bones of Contention, Grand Rapids, Baker, 1992, sh. 83.

81 Boyce Rensberger, The Washington Post, November 19, 1984.

82 Ibid.

83 Richard Leakey, The Making of Mankind, London: Sphere Books, 1981, sh. 62.

84 Marvin Lubenow, Bones of Contention, Grand Rapids, Baker, 1992. sh. 136.

85 Pat Shipman, "Doubting Dmanisi", American Scientist, November- December 2000, sh. 491.

86 Erik Trinkaus, "Hard Times Among the Neanderthals", Natural History, vol 87, December 1978, sh. 10; R. L. Holloway, "The Neanderthal Brain: What Was Primitive", American Journal of Physical Anthropology Supplement, Vol 12, 1991, sh. 94.

87 Alan Walker, Science, vol 207, 1980, sh. 1103.

88 A. J. Kelso, Physical Antropology, 1st ed., New York: J. B. Lipincott Co., 1970, sh. 221; M. D. Leakey, Olduvai Gorge, Vol 3, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1971, sh. 272.

89 S. J. Gould, Natural History, Vol 85, 1976, sh. 30.

90 Time, November 1996.

91 L. S. B. Leakey, The Origin of Homo Sapiens, ed. F. Borde, Paris: UNESCO, 1972, sh. 25-29; L. S. B. Leakey, By the Evidence, New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1974.

92 "Is This The Face of Our Past", Discover, December 1997, sh. 97-100.

93 A. J. Kelso, Physical Anthropology, 1.b., 1970, pp. 221; M. D. Leakey, Olduvai Gorge, Vol 3, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1971, sh. 272.

94 Donald C. Johanson & M. A. Edey, Lucy: The Beginnings of Humankind, New York: Simon & Schuster, 1981, sh. 250.

95 Science News, Vol 115, 1979, p. 196-197.

96 Ian Anderson, New Scientist, Vol 98, 1983, sh. 373.

97 Russell H. Tuttle, Natural History, March 1990, sh. 61-64.

98 Ruth Henke, "Aufrecht aus den Baumen", Focus, Vol 39, 1996, sh. 178.

99 Elaine Morgan, The Scars of Evolution, New York: Oxford University Press, 1994, p. 5.

100 Solly Zuckerman, Beyond The Ivory Tower, New York: Top linger Publications, 1970, p. 19.

101 Robert Locke, "Family Fights" Discovering Archaeology, July/August 1999, sh. 36-39.

102 Ibid.

103 Henry Gee, In Search of Time: Beyond the Fossil Record to a New History of Life, New York, The Free Press, 1999, sh. 126-127.

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