Evolution Hoax

Rudun Juyin Halitta

DOWNLOAD THE BOOK

Download (DOC)
Comments

CHAPTERS OF THE BOOK

< <
12 / total: 22

Babi Na 10 - Muhimmancin Kananan Halittu Ga Juyin Halitta

A Sassan da suka gabata a wannan littafi, mun nuna yadda daftarin burbushin halitta ya rushe ka’idar juyin halitta. A hakikani babu bukatar mu kawo dalilai, saboda tuni ka’idar juyin halitta ta fadi kafinma ace an samu wata hujja akan “jinsunan juyin halitta” da shaidun burbushi. Abinda ya tabbatar da rashin ma’anar ka’idar tun daga farkon fari shine yadda rayuwa ta fara a duniya.

Lokacin da aka gabatar da wannan batu, ka’idojinsu na juyin halitta sunce rayuwa ta fara ne daga tantanin halitta kwatsam. A labarin nasu, shekaru biliyan hudu da suka shude tarin kwayoyin sunadarai sun dauki wani zangon canji a cikin tsarin yanayin duniya inda sakamakon fashewarsu da matsin da ya sanya suka sifantu da zama kwayar halitta ta farko.

Abu na farko da yakamata mu fada shnie da’awar cewa abubuwa marasa rai su hadu samara da rayuwa wannan ba tafarkin kimiyya bane saboda ba’a tabbatar da hakan ta kowace irin hanya a kimiyya ba. Rayuwa na samuwa daga rayuwa ne. kowane rayayyan tantanin haltta yana samuwa ta hanyar fita daga jikin dan uwansa. Babu wanda yayi nasarar samara da rayyan tantanin halitta ta zuwa da dakin gwaje-gwaje.

Ka’idar juyin halitta tayi da’awar cewa tantanin kwayar komayya, wanda ba zai iya samuwa ba idan dan Adam zai tara karfin tunaninsa, ilmi da fasaha da kokarin samara da hakan kwatsam ta karkashin nau’in yanayin kasa. A shafuka masu zuwa, zamu yi nazarin yadda wannan ka’ida ta sabawa sharuddan kimiyya da hankali.

Tatsuniyar “Samuwar Tantanin Halitta Kwatsam”

Idan mutum yayi imani cewar rayayyan tantanin halitta zai iya wanzuwa kwatsam, to babu abinda zai hana shi yarda da irin wannan labarin da zai zo a kasa. Labarin wata alkarya ce:

Wata rana, curin turbaya wadda aka tara tsakanin duwatsu a busassar kasa ta jike bayan saukar ruwa. Sai turbayar ta bushe kuma ta taurare yayin da rana ta fito, kuma ta dunkule, ta fitar da sifa. Bayan nan, wadannan duwatsu, wadda ta samu daga turbaya, sai ta dare gida-gida, daga nan sai kyakkyawar sifar bulo ta bayyana. Sai wannan bulo ya zauna shekaru masu yawa a haka, sannan wani zai iya samuwa a jikinsa. Haka zata kasance har sai daruruwa da dubban bulalluka sun samu a wurin. Koda yake, kwatsam, babu daya daga cikinsu da ya lalace. Duk da cewar suna shan dukan ruwa, iska, tsawa, rana da hunturun sanyi shekaru dubbai, basu rushe ba, karyewa ko barin inda suke ba, amma sun tsaya nan inda suke da zummar samar da wasu bulallukan.

Yayin da suka taru da yawa, sai suka fara gini ta hanayar jeruwa gefe-gefe, wasu akan wasu kuma suna jawuwa ta hanyar canjin yanayi kamarsu iska, guguwa ko girgizar kasa. Haka kuma, abubuwa kamar siminti ko wanda aka cakuda da yashi yana samuwa ta ‘ halittattun yanayi’ a tsare ya dafe su daya bayan daya. Yayin da hakan yake faruwa, rodin dake karkashin kasa ys bullo jikin ginin don ya samar da harsashen ginin dake samuwa da wadannan bulalluka. A karshen wannan gini, cikakken gini zai samu dauke da dukkanin abubuwan da ake nema, kayan karau ne, da dukkan wayoyin da za’a jona a ciki.

Hakika, babu wai kawai harsashi, bulo da siminti yake bukata ba. Amma kuma ta yaya za’a iya samo sauran kayan aikin? Amsar mai sauki ce: dukkan abubuwan za’a bukata wajen ginin sun wanzu ne akan kasar da za’a dora ginin. Sunadarin silicon don yin gilashi, sunadarin copper don yin wayar lantarki, iron don yin makunni, bakunan kwai, da kan fanfo da sauransu, duk sun wanzu a karkashin kasa babu adadi. Kwarewa ake da bukata wajen samarwa da sanya kowane a cikin ginin ta “tsarin yanayi”. Duk shigar da na’urori, katako, da karafa a cikin gini, ana sanya su a tsakanin bulo ne da taimakon iska, ruwa, da girgizar kasa. Komai ya tafi daidai har bulallukan sun jeru inda suka bar iyakar taga kamar sun sani cewar abinda ake cewa gilashi zai samu daga baya ta hanayar tsarin yanayi. Haka kuma, basu manta sun bar wani wuri wanda za’a sanya ruwa, lantarki da tsarin dumama ruwa ba, wanda su ma daga baya suka samu ta haduwa da juna. Komai ya tafi daidai inda “haduwa da juna” da “tsarin yanayi” suka samar da kyakkyawan zane.

Idan har ka jure wajen gasgata wannan labari, to ba zaka samu matsala wajen fahimtar yadda gine-ginen dake birni, shuke-shuke, manyan hanyoyi, hanyoyin tafiyar kafa, kananan gine-gine, hanyoyin sadarwa, sufuri suka samu ba. Idan kana da ilmin kere-kere kuma ka fahimci gabar da muke Magana sosai, zaka iya rubuta littafin “kimiyya” karami da yin bayani akan ka’idojin dake tattare da “tsarin juyin halitta makewayi da kadaitarta da sifa irin ta yanzu”. Kana iya samun girmamawa da kyauta saboda kyawun bincikenka kuma zaka iya daukar kanka wani gagara badau wanda ya fahimtar da al ’umma.

Ka’idar juyin halitta tayi da’awar cewa rayuwa ta wanzu kwatsam. Wannan da’awa ce wadda bata da maraba da labarin mu, domin duk da tsarin tafiyarwarta, tsarin sadarwa, sufuri da aiki, kwayar komayya bata da maraba da kowane irin birni.

Hadaddiyar Sifar Tantani

Tantanin shine mafi haduwa da tsari wanda dan adam bai taba gani ba. Farfesa a fanning halitta Michael Denton, a littafinsa Evolution: A Theory In Crisis, yayi bayanin hadaddiyar wannan halitta tare Da misali:

“Gano hakikanin rayuwa kamar yadda ya bayyana a ilmin kwayoyin halitta, idan muna son fadada tantanin halitta sau miliyan dubu har sai tayi fadin kilo mita ashirin kuma tayi kama da katon jirgin sama wanda zai iya cinye babban birni kamar London ko New york.. abinda zamu iya gain shine wani abu mai cakudadden sifa da launin zane. A fuskar tantanin zamu ga miliyoyn kofofi, kamar hudojin dake jikin babban jirgin ruwa, suna budewa da rufewa don su kyale kaiwa da komowar sunadaran ciki. Idan da zamu shiga cikin daya daga wadannan kofofi zamu tsinci kanmu a wata kasaitacciyar duniyar kimiyya dake cike da abubuwa masu yawa… (hadaddiya) wadda ta sha kan duk wani iya kare-karenmu, gaskiya wadda ta dara zaton yanayi, wadda ta dara dukkan tunanin dan Adam da kokarin samar da hakan…”

hücre yapısı, hücre içi

1. NUCLEUS: All the information regarding the human body is recorded as a complex code in the DNA molecule here.
2. CELL MEMBRANE: By means of its selective permeability, the membrane performs the final selection of which molecules can enter and leave the cell.
3. MITOCHONDRIA: The cell’s main source of energy. Here are synthesised all the ATP molecules necessary for bodily functions.
4. ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM: Isolation and transportation of proteins and other molecules.
5. CELL MEMBRANE GATES: These absorb oxygen and glucose and expel substances such as proteins and enzymes synthesized by the cell.

Mu’jiza a Cikin Tantani da Kawo Karshen Juyin Halitta

Hadadden tsarin halittar tantani abu ne wanda ba ‘a san shi ba a zamaninsu Darwin, a lokacin, bayyana rayuwa ta “fuskar haduwa da juna da tsarin yanayi” sun dauka cewar abu ne mai gamsarwa.

Fasahar karni na 20 ta fito da mafi kankantar kwayar rayuwa kuma ta bayyana cewa tantanin halitta shine mafi cakuduwar tsarin da dan Adam bai taba gain ba. A yau mun san cewa tantanin halitta na dauke da wasu cibiyoyi na samara da kuzari wanda tantanin yake amfana, masana’antu da ake samara da sunadarai da muhimman kwayoyin da suke taimakwa rayuwa, ma’ajiya inda muhimman bayanai akan abubuwan da ake samarwa suke taruwa, hadadden tsarin sufuri da kai-kawo da matatu wadanda suke daukar nauyin raba abin da aka sana’anta daga wuri zuwa wuri, mafi cikar dakin gwaje-gwaje da matatar tacewa da raba kayan aiki inda ya dace, da matattarar sunadaran gina jiki da kayan aikin da suke shigowa da masu fita. Kuma wadannan duk suna kunshe ne a wani karamin sashi na wannan hadadden tsari.

W.H. Thorpe, masanin kimiyyar juyin halitta ya tabbatar da cewa “mafi shahara a nau’in tantani ya samar da hadadden tsarin da ba’a taba tsammani ba fiye da na’urar da ba’ayi tunanin kera ta ba, wadda mutum ne ya zauna ya kera.”104

Ikirari Daga Masana Juyin Halitta

Ka’idar juyin halitta baya fuskantar matsala sama da akan gabar bayanin samuwar rayuwa. Dalili kuwa shine kwayoyin sunadarai sun cakude ne yadda ba za’a iya bayani sosai akansu ba kuma abu ne wanda ba zai taba yiwuwa ga tantanin halitta ya samu kwatsam.

Prof.A.Oparin, EvrimciProfesör

Prof.A.Oparin

An tunkari masanan da tambaya akan asalin yadda rayuwa ta fara a karni na 20. daya daga cikin masu fada aji akan ka’idar juyin halitta, dan kasar Rasha Alenxander I. Oparin, a littafinsa The Origin of Life, wanda aka buga a 1936 yace:

Abin takaici, asalin tantanin halitta ya kasance tambayar data haifar da mafi duhun zamanin juyin halitta!1

Tunda Oparin, da sauran masana sun gabatar da gwaje-gwaje, da bincike da dama don su tabbatar da cewa kwayar halitta ne iya samuwa kwatsam. Saboda haka, duk wani yunkuri da suke yi dada fito da irin sifar da kwayar halittar take dauke suke kuma yana dada rushe da’awoyinsu akan juyin halitta. Farfesa Klaus Dose, shugaban cibiyar nazari akan fannin sunadarai wato Institute of Biochemistry a Jami’ar Johannes Gutemberg, ya bayyana cewa:

Sama da shekaru 30 da aka yi ta gwaje-gwaje akan fannin sunadarai wato chemical and molecular evolution ya haifar da kyakkyawar fahimta akan matsalar dake tattare da asalin rayuwa aban kasa a maimakon hanyar warware matsalar.

Jeffrey Bada, evrimci profesör

Prof. Jeffrey Bada

A yanzu dukkanin tattaunawa akan muhimman ka’idoji da gwaje-gwaje a fanning ko yak are a kure ko ikirari bisa jahilci.2

Bayani mai zuwa wanda masani akan Geochemist Jeffrey Bada daga San Diego Scripps Institute yayi ya fito da halin da masanan suka shiga a fili na karyewar lamura akan rushewar ka’idar.

A yau kamar yadda muke barin karni na 20, har yanzu muna fuskantar babbar matsalar data kasa warwaruwa a lokacin da muke shigowa karni na ashirin: Shin yaya rayuwa ta fara wanzuwa a duniya?3

Wani marubucin kimiyya a New York Times, Nicholas Wade shima yayi kwatankwacin irin wannan bayani a watan yunin 2000:

Dukkan wani labari akan asalin rayuwa a duniya baa bin kamawa bane, kuma ina ganin ana kokarin sanin, lamarin na dada dagulewa.4

1 Alexander I. Oparin, Origin of Life, (1936) NewYork: Dover Publications, 1953 (Reprint), p.196.

2 Klaus Dose, "The Origin of Life: More Questions Than Answers", Interdisciplinary Science Reviews, Vol 13, No. 4, 1988, p. 348

3 Jeffrey Bada, Earth, February 1998, p. 40.

Tantanin na da hadaddiyar sifar da komai cigaban fasahar dan Adam ba zata iya samar dashi ba. Babu wani yunkurin da aka yin a samar da tantanin halitta irin na mutum da aka taba yin nasara. Hakika, an gaji an watsar da irin wannan jarrabawar.

Ka’idar juyin halitta tayi da’awar cewa wannan tsari, wannan mutum, da duk irin hankalinsa, ilminsa da fasaharsa ba zai iya samar da wanzuwarsa “kwatsam” ba, ta hanyar juyin yanayin duniya. Bari in baka misali, yiwuwar samuwar tantanin halitta kwatsam daidai yake da ace yiwuwar samuwar bugaggen littafi a madaba’a ta hanyar tartsatsin wuta.

Masanin lissafi da falakin Ingila Sir Fred Hoyle yayi irin wannan kwatancen shima a daya cikin hirar da aka yi dashi wadda aka buga a mujallar Nature ta watan Nuwamba 12, 1981. koda yake shima dan akidar juyin halitta ne, hoyle ya bayyana cewa yiwuwar samun halittu manya suna iya wanzuwa ta wannan hanya idan zamu kwatanta da yiwuwar cewa halittun dake jan kasa ta cikin karaukar ramin karafe na iya samara da jirgin sama mai kirar Boeing 747 daga kayan aikin da suke wurin.105 shine yake nuna mana cewar ba zai taba yiwuwa tantanin halitta ya wanzu ta hanyar zaton haduwa da juna ba, sai dai babu shakka “halittar” ta aka yi.

Daya daga cikin dalilan da yasa ka’idar juyin halitta ta gaza wajen bada bayanin yadda tantani ya samu shine “sifarsa ta rashin raguwa”. Rayayyen tantanin halitta na kula da kansa ta hanyar zama lafiya da takwarorin gabobin da suke tare. Idan da daya daga cikinsu zai ki yin aiki, to tantanin kuwa ba zai cigaba da rayuwa ba. Tantanin bashi da dammar da zai jira wani mataccen tsari kamar zabin yanayi ko maye gurbi don ya samu dorewa. Saboda haka, tantanin farko aban kasa cikakken tantani ne dauke da dukkanin sifofin da suka kamce shi, kuma wannan shi yake tabbatar da ma’anar cewa dai lallai halittarsa akai.

Sunadarin Gina Jiki Sun Kalubalanci Kwatsam

Tantani na cigaba, amma juyin halitta ya gaza koda ma bayani akan abubuwan gina jikin tantanin. Samarwa, ta yanayin zahiri, koda daya daga cikin dubban cakudaddun kayan gina jikin da suke hadu suka yi tantanin ya gagara.

Sunadaran kwayoyi ne manya-manya wanda suke kunshe kananun bangarori da ake kira “amino acids” wadanda suke a jeer da juna ta wata irin siga. Wadannan kwayoyi sune suke ginshikan rayuwar tantani. Mafi kankantar cikinsu yana dauke da amino acids 50, amma cids din.

Muhimmin abu shine: rashinsa, kari ko canza tilon amino acid a tsarin sifar sunadaran a cikinsa na haifar da matsalar canza sunadaran su zama tulin kwayoyi marasa amfani. Kowane amino acid dole ne ya zauna a mazauninsa da tsarin da ya dace dashi. Ka’idar tayi da’awar cewa, rayuwa ta fara ne kwatsam, ta rikice ta fuskar tsarin tunda ya zame musu wuya suyi bayanin hakan. (Kari akan haka ma ka’idar ta gaza bayanin da’awarta akan “samuwar kwatsam” akan amino acid, wanda za’a tattauna shi anan gaba.)

Madaidaicin molin sunadaran gina jiki yana kunshe ne da amino acid 288 wanda suka kasu gida goma sha biyu, iri-iri. Za’a iya jeranta su a 10300 hanyoyi daban-daban.(Wannan babban tsarin falaki ne dake dauke da 1 tare da sufulai 300 jikinsa). Duk da tulin wannan tsarin, daya ne kawai yake iya zama molin sunadarin da ake bukata. Duk ragowar kuwa suna biyo jerin sarkar amino acid ne wadanda ko ince ma gaba dayasu basu da wani amfani ko kuma illa ga rayayyun halittu.

Ta daya bangaren, muna iya cewa yiwuwar samun sunadari daya tal ya shiga “1 daga 10 300” . Yiwuwar samun wannan 1 kuwa abu ne wanda ba zai taba yiwuwa a aikace ba. (A ilmin lissafi, yiwuwar samun kasa da 1 akan 1050 ana daukarsa a matsayin “babu zaton samuwars”a).

Bayan haka, molin sunadaran amino acid 288 ai misali ne da mutum zai auna shi da wasu manyan molin sunadaran da suke dauke da dubban amino acids. Idan muka sanya irin wannan yanayin lissafi izuwa wadannan manya-manyan molin sunadaran, zamu gain ma cewa kalmar “ba zai yiwu ba” ba zata samu ba.

Idan muka kara matakala daya gaba a kokarinmu na bunkasa tsarin rayuwa, zama fahimci cewa sunadari daya da kansa bashi da ma’anar komai. Wata kankanuwar kwayar halitta da aka taba ganowa, wato Mycoplasma Hominis H39, tana dauke ne da “nau’o’in” sunadaran 600. Anan, sai mun sake maimaita yiwuwar lissafin da muka riga muka yi akan guda daya izuwa wadannan nau’o’i 600. Sakamakon ma ya gaza canza rashin yiwuwar.

 
sitokrom c, protein  maymun, bilgisayar

The chemical structure of even a single cythochrome-C protein (above left) is too complex to be accounted for in terms of chance—so much so, in fact, that the Turkish evolutionist biologist professor Ali Demirsoy admits that the chance formation of a single cythochrome-C sequence "as unlikely as the possibility of a monkey writing the history of humanity on a typewriter without making any mistakes.”

Wadanda suke karanta wadannan sidirorin yanzu kuma dama sun rigaya sun yarda da ka’idar juyin halitta a matsayin wata mashayar bayanan kimiyya zasu yi zargin cewa kawai kara lambobin aka yi don kururu ta sannan ba gaske bane. Ba haka al’amarin yake ba:

Wadannan hujjoji ne tabbatattu. Babu wani masanin juyin halitta da zai yi musun wadannan lambobi. Sun yarda cewa yiwuwar samun talon sunadari “kamar ace yiwuwar biri ne ya rubuta tarihin dan Adam akan keken rubutu ba tare da yin kuskure ba”. 106 Haka kuma, maimakon su yarda da wancan bayanin, wato na halitta, sai suka bige da kare wannan abinda ba zai yiwu ba.

Da yawa daga cikin masanan sunyi ikirarin haka. Misali, Harold F. Blum, shahararren masanin juyin halitta ya fadi cewa: “Samun bazuwar sunadarin polypeptide mafi kankantar sanannan sunadarai ya sha kan samun duk wata yiwuwa.”107

Masana juyin halitta sunyi da’awar cewa juyin halittar sunadaran ya dauki lokaci mai tsawon wanda lokacin ne ya sanya afkuwar abinda ba zai yiwu ba yiwuwa. Koda yake, komai tsawon lokacin, bashi yiwuwa ga amino acid su samar da sunadaran gina jiki kwatsam. William Stokes, masanin binciken kasa a Amurka, ya yarda da wannan hujja a littafinsa Essentials of Earth History inda ya rubuta cewa yiwuwar hakan ta kai kankantar da “ba zata samu a biliyoyin shekaru akan biliyoyin duniyoyi ba, wadda kowacce aka lullube ta da bargon karfafan sunadaran ruwa dake cikin amino acid.”108

To me ake nufi da wadannan? Perry reeves, Farfesa a fannin hade-haden sunadarai, ya amsa wannan tambaya:

Idan mutum yayi nazarin yawan adadin yiwuwar wadannan sifofin da zasu haifar da sassaukan kewayar dandazon amino acid a cikin bututun gwaje-gwajen da hayaki ke fita daga ciki, zai y wuya zuciya ta yarda cewa rayuwa zata iya samuwa ta wannan hanya. Zai fi kyau ace wani kasaitaccen magini ne tare da zanen taswira aka bukace shi da yin wannan aiki.109

Idan tsarin kicibis din daya daga wadannan sunadarai zai yi wuya, to kuwa rashin yiwuwarsa sau biliyoyi abisa miliyoyin sunadaran da zasu hada kansu kwatsam su samar da kwayar halittar mutum shine yafi komai wuya. Saura da me, shi dai tantanin halitta babu wani lokaci da aka taba cewa sunadaran (proteins), tantanin na kunshe ne da nucleic acid, carbohydrates, lipids, vitamins, da wasu sunadaran kamarsu electrolytes da suke jere a kebantaccen tsari, wani baya taba wani, da shiryen da kowanne yana aikinsa. Kowannensu na aiki a matsayin sunadarin gina jiki ko kuma abokin aikin sauran.

Robert Shapiro, Farfesa a fannin hade-haden sunadarai a jami’ar new York kuma kwararre akan DNA, ya kirga yiwuwar samun sunadaran ta hanyar kicibis da juna nau’o’in sunadaran da aka gain 2000 a cikin kwayar bacteria daya (Akwai irinsu daban-daban a jikin kwayar halittar dan Adam guda 200,000).Adadin da aka gano yakai 1 bisa 10 4000 110 (wannan gagarumin adadi ne dake shiga sifilai 40, 000 kusa da 1).

Farfesa a fannin lissafi (applied mathematics) da falaki daga University college (Cardiff, Wales), Chandra Wickramasinghe, tayi tsokaci akai:

Yiwuwar samun tsarin rayuwa kwatsam daga matattun kwayoyi daya ne daga adadin babu 40,000 bayanta…ta kai girman da za’a binne Darwin da gaba dayan ka’idar juyin halitta. Babu wani abu wai shi tsohuwar miya. Wannan duniya ta Ard ko daga wata duniyar, saboda haka idan farkon rayuwa bata faro a tarwatse ba, to lallai kuwa halitta ta samu daga buwayayyen mahalicci.”111

Sir Fred Hoyle shima ya fadi albarkacin bakinsa dangane da wadannan rikirkitattun lambobi:

Hakika, wannan ka’ida (ta cewa rayuwa ta samu daga buwayayyen mahalicci) ta zama babu makawa inda mutum zai yi mamakin wai me yasa bata zama karbabbiya ko’ina ba, a matsayin shaida mai nuna kanta. Dalilan dai na hankkali ne maimakon kimiyya.112

Dalilin da yasa Hoyle yayi amfani da kalmar “hankali” wani sharadi ne da masana juyin halitta suka sawa kansu don kada su yarda da cewa rayuwa halittarta ake yi. Sun kudurcewa kansu kin yarda da wanzuwar Ubangiji ya zama shine manufarsu. Saboda wannan dalilin ne kadai, suka shiga kare tatsuniyoyin shirme wanda su da kansu sun tabbatar ba zai yiwu ba.

Bangaren Hagun Sunadaran Gina Jiki

sag elli aminoasit, sol elli aminoasit

In nature, there are two different types of amino acids, called "left-handed" and "right-handed". The difference between them is the mirror-symmetry between their three dimensional structures, which is similar to that of a person's right and left hands.

Bari yanzu muyi cikakken bayani akan yadda tatsuniyoyin ‘yan juyin halitta akan samuwar sunadaran ya wuyata.

Jerin sunadaran amino acid da yafi zama daidai shi kadai ba zai iya samara da molin sunadari daya ba. Sai dai, kowane daya daga cikin nau’o’in amino acid wanda yake cikin jerin gwanon sunadaran ya zamana a bangaren hagu. Amino acid na da kashi biyu na nau’o’insa wanda ake cewa “na bangaren hagu” dana “bangaren dama”.

Bambanci tsakaninsu shine fuska biyun dake fuskantar juna tsakanin sifarsu ta sashe uku, wadda tayi kama da hannayen mutum dama da hagu.

Amino acid din da ya fito daga dayan wadannan nau’o’i biyu zai saukin haduwa da dan uwansa. Wata hujja mai karfafa gwiwa ta bayyana ta hanyar bincike: dukkanin sunadaran gina jikin dake jikin tsirrai da dabbobi, tun daga kan mafi saukin cikinsu har zuwa cakudaddu, sun fit one daga na bangaren hagun. Idan daya daga cikin amino acid din dake hagu ya hadu da jerin sunadaran, sai sunadarin ya daina aiki. Haka kuma, a wasu binciken kwayoyin halittun da suke samun sunadaran amino acid ta bangaren daman an da nan suka tarwatsa wadannan amino acid din, wasu lokutan su hadu su samar da amino acid ta bangaren hagu daga burbushin da suka tarwatse ko sun amfane su.

Bari mu dauka cewar rayuwa ta samu kwatsam kamar yadda masana juyin halitta suke da’awa. Anan, sunadaran dake bangaren hagu dana dama wadanda suka samu kwatsam yakamata su samu yawan adadi daya. Saboda haka dukkanin rayayyun halittu yaci ace sun tara yawan sunadaran dake hagu da dama daya a jikinsu domin hakan zai iya yiwuwa don su game juna. A hakika, sunadaran da suke a jikin dukkanin rayayyun halittu sun samu ne daga amino acid dn bangaren hagu.

Tambayar yadda sunadaran zasu iya fitar da na bangaren hagu daga cikin jerin amino acid da kuma yadda ba za’a samu sunadaran hagu koda guda daya ya shigo cikin jerin amino acid don ya shiga cikin samara da rayuwa wani abu ne dake fuskantar ‘yan juyin halitta. Babu wata hanya da suke da ita da zasu kawo wani bayani mai gamsarwa dangane da yanayin a kebance.

Haka kuma, wadannan sifofin sunadarai sun karfafa dagulewa da rushewar fahimtar ‘yan juyin halitta ta “kicibis”. Idan ma ana son samara da sunadarai mai “ma’ana”, lallai to a sami adadi mai yawa na amino acid, bisa kyakkyawan tsari, kuma a cakuda su da jerin sunadaran dama mai hawa uku. Kari akan haka, duk wadannan amino acid din za’a zabosu ne daga bangaren hagu kuma koda guda daya daga bangaren dama ba zai shigo cikinsu ba. Duk da haka babu zabin yanayi a jerin kuma kokarin tabbatar da hakan wani kari ne mara kyau wanda dole sai an fitar dashi daga jerin sarkar sunadaran. Wannan yanayi ya sake fitar da yiwuwar tsarin kicibis da yanayi mafi kyau.

A ckin Brittanica science Encyclopaedia wanda littafi da ya fito yake kare juyin halitta a fili, an nuna cewa amino acid dake jikin dukkanin rayayyun halittun dake ban kasa da sunadaran dake gina jiki kamar proteins suna da irin wannan jeri na bangaren hagu. An kara da cewa kamar a gara sisi ne sau miliyoyi kuma ta nuna kan sarki kowane lokaci. A cikin encyclopaedia din ne dai, aka rubuta cewa ba zai yiwu a iya fahimtar dalilin da yasa kwayoyin suke komawa bangaren hagu ko dama ba kuma wannan zabi dake da alaka da asalin rayuwa a duniya yake da ban sha’awa.113

Idan har za’a gara sisi kuma ya nuna kan sarki sau miliyan, yafi kama da tsarin hankali akan faruwa kwatsam ko a yarda cewa akwai wani abu da yake juya shi izuwa hakan ? Amsar dai babu makawa haka ne. Haka kuma, duk da cewar babu makawa, masana juyin halitta suna fakewa ne da kicibis ba don komai ba saboda basa son su yarda da « kawo daukin da wani fadakakken zati yake yi ».

Yanayi irin na bangaren hagun amino acid ya wanzu a cikin nucleotides, wani mafi kankantar barin jikin DNA da RNA. Sabanin amino acid din dake jikin halittu, jerin daman sunadaran nucleotides su kadai ake zaba. Wannan wani tsari ne da ba zai taba bayanuwa ta hanyar kicibis ba.

Tatsuniyar Juyin Halitta Akan Asalin Rayuwa

peptid bağları, aminoasit

Sunadaran gina jiki sune abubuwan da suke taimakawa cigaban rayayyun halittu. Ba kawai kadai suna haduwa bane don su gina rayayyun tantanin halitta bane, sai dai suna taka muhimmiyar rawa a fagen jujjuya sunadaran dake jiki. Daga hadaddun sunadarai zuwa kwayoyin dake mika sako, yana iya yiwuwa kaga sunadarai na yin aikinsu.

Tambayar “yadda rayayyun halittu suka fara bayyana” tana dagula masana juyin halitta, ta kai basa son su rika Magana akan wannan batun. Sukan yi kokarin su tsallake wannan tambaya ta hanyar cewa “halittun farko sun wanzu ne sakamakon Faruwar jujjuyawar wasu abubuwa a ruwa.” An kai su bangon da ba zasu iya kubuta ba. Duk da irin mahawarorin burbushin halittu da zasu hargitsa da basu da karkatacciyar fassara kamar yadda suke fata don karfafa da’awoyinsu. Saboda haka, ka’idar juyin halitta lallai abar karyatawa ce tun daga farkon fari.

Akwai wani Muhimmin abu da yakamata a lura dashi: Idan har kowane matakin juyin halitta an tabbatar da ba zai yiwu ba, wannan ya isa ya tabbatar da cewa gaba dayan ka’idar karya ce kuma batacciya. Misali, ta hanyar tabbatar da cewa taragutsan Samuwar sunadarai ba bai yiwu ba, to duk wasu da’awoyi dangane da sauran matakin juyin halitta ababan karyatawa ne. Bayan wannan matakin, ya zama babu ma’ana a dauki kwanyar mutum data biri a yada jita-jita akansu.

Yadda rayayyun kwayoyin halitta suka wanzu daga matattu tambaya ce da masanan basa son su fadi tuntuni. Bayan haka wannan tambaya, wadda suke ta kauce mata, ta rika girma hart a zama babu kamawa kuma aka yi ta kokari aga warware ta kawo jerin nazarce-nazarce a kashi daya bisa hudun karni na 20.

Tambayar itace: Ta yaya rayayyen tantani halitta ya wanzu a farkon yanayin duniya? Ta wasu kalmomin, wane irin bayani masana juyin halitta suka kawo don warware wannan matsala?

Amsoshin tambayoyin sun samu ta hanyar juyin halitta da masu bincike sun aiwatar da bincike musamman don amsa wadannan tambayoyi amma wannan bai haifar da wata sha’awa sosai ba. Mafi karbuwar nazari akan Asalin rayuwa shine gwajin da ake kira Gwajin Miller wanda a wani bincike ne da dan kasar Amurka Stanley Miller yayi a 1953. (Ana kiran wannan gwaji da wani sunan wato “Gwajin Urey-Miller saboda gudunmawar masu kula da Miller a Jami’ar Chicago, Harold Urey.)

Wannan gwaji shi kadai “shaida” ce da ake amfani da ita don tabbatar da “Bayanin kwayoyin juyin halitta” da aka gabatar don ya zama harsashe ga zamanin juiyn halitta. Duk da wucewar kusan rabin karni, da kamala bunkasar fasaha, babu wanda ya kara cigaba da bincike. Saboda haka ne, har yanzu yasa ake koyar da gwajin Miler a littattafan kimiyya a matsayin bayanin halitta izuwa zamunnan rayayyun halittu. Kayi hankali da yarda da hujjar cewa wadannan ilmai basa goyon bayansu kuma sun sabawa rubuce-rubucensu, da gangan masanan suka guji nazari akan wadannan gwaje-gwajen.

 

A Protein cannot form Even if All the Necessary Conditions were Present

Since some people are unable to take a broad view of matters, but approach them from a superficial viewpoint and assume protein formation to be a simple chemical reaction, they may make unrealistic deductions such as "amino acids combine by way of reaction and then form proteins". However, accidental chemical reactions taking place in an inanimate structure can only lead to simple and primitive changes. The number of these is predetermined and limited. For a somewhat more complex chemical material, huge factories, chemical plants, and laboratories have to be involved. Medicines and many other chemical materials that we use in our daily life are made in just this way. Proteins have much more complex structures than these chemicals produced by industry. Therefore, it is impossible for proteins, each of which is a wonder of creation, in which every part takes its place in a fixed order, to originate as a result of haphazard chemical reactions.

Darwin was ignorant of DNA

In advancing his theory, Charles Darwin could not account for the variety of species. In any case, he would have not been unable to, being ignorant of DNA. Darwin knew neither genetics, nor biomathematics nor microbiology–branches of science that emerged only after Darwin's death. He made illusory deductions based on the limited means at his disposal and on visible similarities among living things. Since the above branches of science had not yet emerged, he had no opportunity to investigate the cell. The period in which the claims of the theory of evolution were put forward is therefore important in terms of our seeing the dimensions of the ignorance concerned.

Darwin’in DNA’dan Haberi Yoktu

To summarize the subject of proteins;

◉ Around 100 special proteins are needed for a single protein to form.

◉ Protein cannot form if even one of these enzymes (proteins) required for protein synthesis is missing.

◉ It is not enough for these 100 enzymes to be present at the same time; they must all also be present in a special region inside the cell (a specific region inside the nucleus).

◉ DNA manufactures the enzymes necessary for protein to form. Proteins are also needed for DNA replication. There is no possibility of one appearing before the other. Both have to be present at the same time.

◉ A ribosome that serves as a factory for protein formation must also exist. But the ribosome is itself made up of proteins. Therefore, proteins are needed for ribosomes to exist, and ribosomes are needed for proteins.

◉ It is impossible for one to form before the other. Proteins, DNA, the ribosome, the cell nucleus, mitochondria that produce energy and all the other organelles in the cell must all exist at one and the same time.

◉ The enzymes essential for protein to form have to be sent to the region where manufacture will be carried out by the cell. Even if enzymes are present, so long as they are not given tasks to perform by the cell they will do nothing for that protein.

◉ There have to be a specific temperature and pH value in order for enzymes to be able to carry out reactions. Enzymes do not initiate reactions if they are not at the right temperature and pH level.

◉ Therefore, it is impossible for a protein to emerge so long as all the organelles of the cell do not co-exist together.

◉ Even if we place all the components necessary for protein in some muddy water, these components can never combine together to constitute proteins. The existence of the cell is a prerequisite for that to happen.

◉ Amino acids do not normally react with one another. Helper enzymes to carry out a reaction have to be ready and present inside the cell. But they do naturally enter into reactions with various substances, such as sugar. Therefore, even if all the requisite amino acids are placed into muddy water they can still never combine spontaneously with other amino acids. The cell is again essential for that to happen.

◉ Under natural conditions, even if a protein is left inside muddy water, that protein will immediately be broken down, under the effect of various environmental factors, or else will combine with other acids, amino acids or chemical substances and lose all its properties and turn into another substance that serves no purpose.

◉ In addition to all this, it will be useful to reiterate the essential conditions for a protein:

  • a. There must be peptide bonds between amino acids
  • b. All amino acids must be left-handed
  • c. Only 20 amino acids must be used
  • d. Amino acids have to be in a specific sequence
  • e. The protein that forms has to have a specific 3-D shape.

Let us for a minute put aside all the impossibilities we have described so far, and suppose that a useful protein molecule still evolved spontaneously "by accident". Even so, evolution again has no answers, because in order for this protein to survive, it would need to be isolated from its natural habitat and be protected under very special conditions. Otherwise, it would either disintegrate from exposure to natural conditions on earth, or else join with other acids, amino acids, or chemical compounds, thereby losing its particular properties and turning into a totally different and useless substance.

One Single Protein Refutes Evolution
Evolution already collapses at the very initial stage of life.

What really obliterates Darwinism, before fossils, paleontology, microbiology, genetics and the complexity in living things, is a single protein. That is because the probability of a single protein forming by chance is simply "zero."

The main reason for this is the need for other proteins to be present if one protein is to form, and this completely eradicates the possibility of chance formation. This fact by itself is sufficient to eliminate the evolutionist claim of chance right from the outset. To summarize,

  1. Protein cannot be synthesized without enzymes, and enzymes are all proteins.
  2. Around 100 proteins need to be present in order for a single protein to be synthesized. There therefore need to be proteins for proteins to exist.
  3. DNA manufactures the protein-synthesizing enzymes. Protein cannot be synthesized without DNA. DNA is therefore also needed in order for proteins to form.
  4. All the organelles in the cell have important tasks in protein synthesis. In other words, in order for proteins to form a perfect and fully functioning cell needs to exist together with all its organelles.

The fact that Darwinists are unable to account for a single protein completely eliminates the theory of evolution. After that, all false accounts manufactured about evolution are invalid right from the outset.

One important feature of Darwinist demagoguery is that Darwinists always tended to reduce the question of the origin of life to the very simple despite all the complexity of life, by portraying everything within it as very simple. They ignorantly say, “the cell emerged from muddy water” and “DNA spontaneously began replicating itself.”

Not only do people now know that a single protein is far too complex ever to come into being spontaneously, they are also aware that neither a protein, DNA, RNA or any other minute component of the cell will serve any purpose in the absence of the cell as a whole.

While they cannot explain just a single protein, a complete cell with its extreme complexity is really a great nightmare for Darwinists.

The complexity of the cell, which is far greater and dazzling than that of great metropolises, cannot be explained as the work of mere coincidences. Neither a single cell nor a single protein can form by chance.

 

Gwajin Miller

Manufar Stanley Miller shine gabatar da gwajin da yayi da yake nuna cewa amino acids, tubalin sunadaran gina jiki, ya wanzu “kwatsam” akan duniyar da babu rai a cikinta shekaru biliyoy da suka shude.

A gwajinsa, Miller yayi amfani da cakudadden gas wanda ya dauka ya wanzu akan farkon kasa (amma daga baya aka gano mara kyau ne) wanda ya kunshi ammonia, methane, hydrogen da water vapour. Tunda wadannan gas ba zasu shiga cikin daya bat a yanayi zaunanne ba, sai ya sanya wani abu da zai rika juya sunadaran don su rika haduwa. Mun dauka cewa wannan sunadarib zai iya tahowa daga walkiyar haske a farkon yanayi, yayi amfani da lantarki wajen samar dashi.

Miller ya kona cakudadden gas din a kimanin 100 oC a mako daya, kuma ya kara da wutar lantarki. A karshen makon, Miller ya duba sunadaran da suka samu a bakin kwalbar gwajin kuma ya gano cewa uku daga cikin amino acid 20, wadanda suna cikin muhimman kayan sunadarai, sun samu.

Wannan gwaji ya taso da babban nishadi ga masana juyin halitta kuma an tallata shi a matsayin wata babbar nasara. Haka kuma, a wannan hali ne, mujallu da yawa sun sanya take kamar “Miller ya halicci rai”. Bayan haka, kwayoyin halittun da Miller yake motsawa matattu ne.

Karfafawa bisa wannan gwaji, nan da nan masanan suka samar da wani shiri. Akayi sauri aka fito da matakin samar da amino acid din. Mu dauka, amino acid daga baya ya hade a jere don ya samar da sunadarai kwatsam. Wasu daga cikin sunadaran da suka wanzu kwatsam sun shigar da kansu cikin irin jikin tantanin halitta wanda kawai suka samu kuma suka zama dadaddun tantani. Wadannan tantani sun hade kansu da wuri kuma suka samar da rayayyiyar kwayar halitta. Haka kuma, gwajin Miller bai zama komai ba illa shirin da aka tabbatar karya ce ta fuskoki da dama.

Sababbin Dalilan Ma’abota Juyin Halitta Sun Karyata Gwajin Miller

A yau, gwajin Miller abu ne da yawa daga masanan juyin halitta suka yi watsi dashi. A shekara ta 1988, a fitowar shahararriyar mujallar Earth ta watan Febrairu, an buga kalamai masu zuwa a kasida mai taken “Life’s Crucible”.

stanley miller, miller deneyi

Masana binciken kasa ya kunshi kawai Carbon dioxide da nitrogen, da wadanda basu kai karfinsu ba irin na gwajin da aka yi a 1953.

Kuma koda ma gwajin Miller ya wanzu, ta yaya za’a samu sassaukan kwayoyi kamar amino acid kuma su shige ta cikin canjin kwayoyi da zai musanya su izuwa mafi haduwa, ko jeruwa, kamar sunadarai ? Miller da kansa ya fitar da hannunsa daga bangarewn wannan tatsuniya. “matsala ce”, ya fada cikin damuwa. “Yaya za’ayi a samar da jerin sunadarai? Ba tada sauki.”1

Kamar yadda muke gani, hatta Miller ma da kansa ya yarda da haka, a yau, gwajinsa bay a kaiwa izuwa karshen lamari dangane da yin bayani akan Asalin rayuwa. Yardar masananmu akan wannan gwajin nuni kawai yake yi akan koma bayan juyin halitta, da masu yada ta.

A fitowar mujallar National Geographic ta watan Maris 1998, A kasida mai taken “The Emergence of Life On Earth”, wato yadda rayuwa ta fara aban kasa, an fadi Magana mai zuwa akan wannan batu:

Yawancin masana kimiyya suna zargin cewa yanzu Asalin yanayin duniya ya sha bamban daga irin wanda Miller ya zata da farko. Sun dauka ta kunshi Carbon dioxide da nitrogen, methane da ammonia ne.

Labari ne mara dadi ga masana kimiyyar hada sunadarai.Yayin da suke kokarin baza carbon dioxide da nitrogen, sai suka samu wani adadi na cakudaddun kwayoyin daidai da wanda zai narka launin abinci a cikin ruwan babban bahon wanka. Masana kimiyya sunga abin da wahala suyi zaton rayuwa zata fara daga irin wannan cakudaddiyar miya.2

A takaice, babu gwajin Miller, ko wani kokarin masani da zai iya amsa tambayar yadda rayuwa ta fara aban kasa. Dukkanin binciken da aka yi ya nuna cewa ba zai taba yiwuwa ace rayuwa ta fara kwatsam kuma ya tabbatar da cewa halittar rayuwa aka yi.

1. Earth, "Life's Crucible", February 1998, p.34

2. National Geographic, "The Rise of Life on Earth", March 1998, p.68

Gwajin Miller Ba Komai Bane Illa Shiri

Gwajin Miller yayi kokarin tabbatar da cewa amino acid zasu iya samuwa akaran kansu ta farkon kasa amma tana da sabani a wurare da dama. sabanin sune kamar haka:

1. Ta hanyar amfani da wani abu mai suna “cold trap”, Miller ya ware amino acid daga cikin sunadaran yayin da suka samu. Da bai yi haka ba, yanayin da ya samar da bai samar da amino acid din tuni da ya lalata wadannan sunadaran kwayoyin.

Babu shakka, irin wannan tsari na warewar amino acid bai taba wanzuwa ta yanayin kasa ba. Ba don wannan abu ba, koda amino acid daya ne ya samu, to da yanzu ya lalace. Richard Bliss masanin hade-haden sunadarai ya fadi albarkacin bakinsa akan wannan sabani kamar haka: “hakika ba don wannan cold trap ba, da sunadaran sun lalace ta hanyar lantarkin.”114

Hakika Miller, a wasu gwaje-gwajen da ya sake yi, bai iya samar da wani amino acid din ta irin hanyar da yayi na farko ba tare da amfani da cold trap ba.

2. Yanayin bigiren da Miller yayi yunkurin canzawa a gwajinsa bana gaskiya bane. A cikin shekarar 1980, masana kimiyya sun yarda da ra’ayin cewa sunadaran nitrogen da carbon dioxide sun kamanci ace suma su samu ta irin wannan hanya maimakon methane da ammonia. Bayan tsawon wani Lokaci, Miller da kansa ya fito yayi ikirarin cewa yanayin da yayi amfani dashi bana gaskiya bane.115

To don me Miller ya dage akan wadannan gas? Amsar dai mai sauki ce: idan ammonia, yana da Labarin haka a kasidar da aka buga a mujallar Discover:

Miller da Urey sun kwafi dadadden yanayin kasa tare da cakuda methane da ammonia. Kamar yadda suka ce, kasa (ard) hade-hade ne daga karfe, dutse da kankara. Haka kuma, a wani nazari na kusa, an fahimci cewa (ard) kasa nada zafin gaske ada kuma tana dauke ne da narkakken sunadarin nickel da iron. Saboda haka, yanayin wancan lokacin zai samu yawanci nitrogen (N2), Carbon dioxide (CO2) da water vapour (H2O). Wadannan basu kai karfin methane da ammonia a wajen samar da kwayoyin halitta ba.116

Masanin Kimiyyar Amurka J.P. ferris da C.T. Chen sun maimaita irin gwajin da Stanley Miller yayi ta yanayin kasa dake dauke da carbon dioxide, hydrogen, nitrogen, da water vapour, kuma basu iya samar da koda amino acid daya ba.117

3. Wani Muhimmin batun dake rushe gwajin Miller shine cewar akwai isashshen sunadarin oxygen da zai lalata dukkanin amino acid da ya bazu a lokacin da ake zaton sun samu. Wannan hujja, wadda Miller ya dauke kansa ga barinta, an bayyanata ta hanyar bin cakudadden sunadarin iron da uranium da aka gano a cikin duwatsu wanda ake kissimawa ya kai shekaru biliyan 3.5 da suka shude.118

Akwai wasu binciken da aka gano dake nuna yawan oxygen a wancan matakin wanda ma yafi yawan yadda masana juyin halitta suke da’awa.Bincike ya sake nuna cewa a wancan lokacin, yawan ultraviolet radiation wanda kasa take fitarwa ya nunka sau dubu goma da yawan wanda masanan suke kissimawa. Bazuwar ultraviolet yaso ya fitar da oxygen din sakin water vapour da carbon dioxide a sararin iska.

Gaba dayan wannan yanayi ya rusa gwajin Miller, inda aka fitar da Oygen daga ciki. Da anyi amfani da oxygen, da methane ya canza zuwa carbon dioxide da water, da kuma ammonia shima ya canza izuwa nitrogen da water. A daya hannun, a yanayin da babu oxygen ma to da babu ciki ya lalace tunda hasken ultraviolet zai shafe su tare da kariya daga ozone layer ba. Ta wasu kalmomin, tare ko ba tare da oxygen a yanayin kasa ba, sakamakon zai zama mai rusa yanayin samun amino acid ne.

4. A karshen gwajin Miller, an samar da sunadarai masu yawa da yanayin aikin da zai shafi rayayyun halittu. Da ace ba’a ware amino acid ba kuma ba’a sanya su cikin irin wadannan yanayi ba, lalacewarsu ko canzasu izuwa wasu mazaunan ta zama babu makawa.

Haka kuma, da yawa daga cikin amino acid din bangaren dama suna cikin amino acid din da basa aiki a jikin kwayoyin halittu. A karshe, yayin da gwajin Miller ya samar da amino acid basu dace da rayuwa ba. A gaskiya, wannan tafarki ya dauki salon dake cakude da acid din da ya lalata kuma ya zagwanya muhimman kwayoyin da aka samu.

Akwai wata hujja kwakkwara wadda dukkanin wadannan batutuwa suke nusarwa: Gwajin Miller ba zai taba da’awar cewa ya tabbatar cewar rayayyun halittu sun samu kwatsam ta yanayin kasa ba. Gaba dayan gwajin ba zai taba da’awar cewa ya tabbatar da cewar rayayyun halittu sun samu kwatsam ta yanayin kasa ba. Gaba dayan gwajin ba komai bane illa wani shiri da akayi kuma ake kula da gwajin don ya samar da amino acid. Adadin nau’in gas din da aka yi amfani a gwajin an shirya sune don su tabbatar da Samuwar amino acid din ne. Adadin yawan kuzarin da ake samarwa tsarin bai yi kadan ko yawa ba amma a jere don su aiwatar da aikin da ake bukata. Kayan gwajin ma an kebancesu don kada a bada wata kofar da wani abu mai lahani ya duga, mai lalata tsarin ko duk wani abinda zai kawo cikas wajen samar da amino acid da aka sa ran bayyanarsu a yanayin dadaddiyar kasa. Babu wasu sunadarai, kwayoyin ko hadaddun kwayoyin da suka bayyana a yanayi a cikin gwajin. Oxygen, wanda yaso ya hana Samuwar amino acid saboda narkashi, hanya ce kadai da za’a iya tarwatsa tsarin. Kuma koda ta yanayin dakin gwajin ne, yana da wahala wajen samun amino acid don su tabbatare da wanzuwarsu kuma su kare lalacewarsu ba tare da “cold trap” ba.

A hakika, ta hanyar wannan gwajin masanan da kansu su karyata juyin halitta domin idan gwajin ya tabbatar da rashin komai to samar da amino acid din zai zo kadai a dakin gwajin da ya tattara dukkanin abubuwan da zasu taimakawa Samuwar sunadarin. Wato, karfin ikon da zai iya samar da rayuwa ba zai taba zama ta hanyar yanayin da bai san abinda yake ba amma ta fadakakken tsarin halitta.

Dalilin da yasa masanan suka ki yarda da wannan Hakikanin shaida shine makahon rikonsu ga abinda ba zai yiwu ba kuma mara kimiyya. Abin sha’awa, Harold Urey, wanda ya shirya gwajin Miller tare da dalibinsa Stanley Miller, yayi wannan ikirari mai zuwa:

Dukkaninmu wadanda suka yi nazari akan Asalin rayuwa mun gano cewa yayin da muke kara lekawa cikinta, yayin da muke gane cewa cike yake da cakuduwar da za’ace ya samu daga ko’ina. Mun yarda a matsayin wani bangare na imani cewa rayuwa ta faro ne daga wata matacciyar kwaya aban kasa. Sai dai cakuduwar tana girman sha’ani, yana da wahala a garemu muyi zaton cewa tayi hakan.120

Dadadden Yanayin Kasa Da Sunadarai

Duk da taragutsan batutuwan da muka lisafta a sama, har yanzu masanan suna daukar gwajin Miller don su kubuta daga tambayoyi akan yadda suka samar da amino acid a karan kansu a yanayin dadaddiyar kasa. Har a yau ma, sun cigaba da yaudarar mutane ta hanyar fakewa da cewar an warware matsalolin ta hanyar wannan gwaji na boge.

Haka kuma, bayanin matakin na biyu akan Asalin rayuwa, masanan sun fuskanci matsala wadda ba za’a iya misalta ta data Samuwar amino acid ba: “Sunadarai”, wato, kayan gine jikin rayuwa wadanda aka cure su a cikin daruruwan amino acid iri-iri dake hade da juna ta wani kebantaccen tsari.

Da’awar cewa sunadaran sun samu kwatsam ta karkashin yanayin kasa ba gaskiya bane kuma babu hankali a ciki akan da’awar cewa amino acid sun samu kwatsam. A shafukan da suka gabata munyi nazarin lissafin da ba zai yiwu ba hada amino acid a cikin jerin don su samar da sunadarai ta hanyar hada kwayoyin ta yanayin dadaddiyar kasa.

ilkel atmosfer, ilkel ortam

One of the evolutionists’ gravest deceptions is the way they imagine that life could have emerged spontaneously on what they refer to as the primitive Earth, represented in the picture above. They tried to prove these claims with such studies as the Miller experiment. Yet they again suffered defeat in the face of the scientific facts: The results obtained in the 1970s proved that the atmosphere on what they describe as the primitive Earth was totally unsuited to life.

Samar Da Sunadarai Ba Zai Yiwu a cikin Ruwa Ba

Yayin da kayi kwado don samar da sunadarai, amino acid sun hadu don haka aka kirawo su “peptide bond”. An fitar da ruwa guda daya a lokacin da ake samar da wannan peptide bond.

Wannan hujja hakika ta rushe bayanin masanan cewa rayuwa ta yanayi dadadde ta faro a cikin ruwa, saboda kamar yadda yazo a “Le Chatelier Principle” a fannin hade-haden sunadarai, yana da wuya ace Canjin dake fitar da ruwa (condensation reaction) yayi aiki a yanayin ruwa. Samun haka a irin wannan yanayi shine “mafi karancin yiwuwar samun haka” a garwayen sauran canjin.

Don haka tekuna, wadanda ake da’awar nan ne wurin da rayuwa ta faro kuma anan ne amino acid ya samo asali, lallai ba kyakkyawan wuri ne na amino acid don ya samar da sunadarai ba. A daya hannun, zai zama babu dabara ga masanan su canza ra’ayinsu da da’awar cewa Asalin rayuwa ta fara ne aban kasa, saboda yanayin wurin da zai iya kare amino acid daga hasken ultraviolet sune tekuna da ruwaye. A kan kasa kuwa, hasken ultraviolet zai iya lalata su. Le Chatelier Principle ya karyata da’awar samun rayuwa a cikin. Wannan wata takaddama ce da take fuskantar juyin halitta.

Wani Kwazo Mai Ban Takaici: Gwajin Fox

proteinoid, molekült

A gwajinsa, Fox ya samar da wani abu wai shi “proteinoid”. Proteinoids sun hadu daga bazuwar amino acid. Sabanin sunadaran dake rayayyun halittu, basu da wani amfani kuma basa aiki. Anan ga hoton da ake iya gani ta (microscope) abin hangen nesa kwayoyin proteinoid.

Akan takaddamar da ake yi a sama, masanan sun fara kirkirar labari akan wannan “matsalar ruwa” wadda ta karyata ka’idojin. Sydney Fox daya ne daga cikin kwararrun masu bincike. Fox ya gabatar da ka’idar don ta warware wannan matsalar. Kamar yadda yace, amino acid din farko ya jawu daga wasu makalutai kusa da volcano bayan samuwarsu a cikin yanayin teku. Ruwan dake dauke da cakudaddun sunadarai wanda amino acid ne cikinsu akan makalutan, lallai yaci ace ya bazu a lokacin da butar gwajin ta fara tafasa sosai.

saboda haka, amino acid wadanda suka “bushe”, an hada dasu wajen samar da sunadarai.

Haka kuma wannan “rikitacciyar” hanyar fita mutane da yawa basu gamsu da ita ba, saboda amino acid din da zasu iya jure wannan yanayi mai karfi ba. Bincike ya nuna cewa amino acid sun fi sauran lalacewa a yanayi mai karfi.

Amma Fox bai hakura ba. Ya cakuda tataccen amino acid a dakin gwaje-gwaje “ta wani yanayi na musamman” ta gasa su a cikin busashshen wuri. Sai amino acid din suka hadu amma kuma basu samar da wani sunadari ba. Abinda ya samu shine wani sassauka kuma tarwatsatstsen amino acid wanda aka hada jikin kowane daya, wadandaa jerin sun yi kadan suyi kama da rayayyen sunadari. Haka kuma, idan dai har Fox ya ajiye amino acid a wuri kebantacce to kuwa wadannan jerin suma zasu hargitse ne.121

Wani batun dake karyata gwajin shine cewa Fox bai yi amfani da gurbataccen sakamakon da Miller ya samu a gwajinsa ba amma yayi amfani ne da rayayyun amino acid daga rayayyun kwayoyin halitta. Haka kuma, gwajin da aka yi nufinsu ya zama cigaba ne na gwajin Miller, lallai ne ya fito daga sakamakon da Miller ya samu. Duk da haka babu Fox, ballantana wani mai bincike da yayi amfani da gurbataccen amino acid din da Miller ya samar.122

Abubuwa Marasa Rai Basu Iya Hada Rayuwa

Da yawa daga gwajin masana Juyin halitta kamar Gwajin Miller da Gwajin Fox sunyi iya kokarinsu na da’awar tabbatar da cewa kwayoyin marasa rai suna iya hada kansu don su samara da hadaddun rayayyun halittu. Wannan Magana babu kimiyya a ciki; da wasu nazarce-nazarce da gwaje-gwajen sun tabbatar da cewa babu hakan. Shahararren baturen Ingila masanin falaki da lissafi Sir Fred Hoyle ya nuna cewa kwayoyin halitta ba zasu iya samar da rayuwa akaran kansu ba, ba tare da wani katsalandan ba.

idan da akwai wani tsarin kwayoyin wanda zai tuka tsarin tafiyar da rayuwa, to wanzuwarsa zata iya fitowa a cikin dakin gwaje-gwaje. Misali, mutum zai iya daukar babban bahon wanka a matsayin dadaddiyar kwanon miya. A cika ta da duk wasu sunadarai da mutum yaso ya zuba. Ya zubo iskar gas akanta, ko cikinta, idan yaso, kuma baza duk irin hasken da yake so. Ace gwajin ya cigaba har tsawon shekara don yaga nawa ne daga cikin sunadaran enzymes daga cikin 2,000 (sunadaran da suka samu ta rayayyun tantani) suka bayyana a cikin bahon. Zan bada amsa, saboda haka sai ya rike lokacin da matsala da kuma nauyin kudin da gwajin zai ci. Ba zai samu komai ba, illa dai wasu taragutsan sunadaran amino acid da wasu saukakan kwayoyin.1

Masanin juyin halitta Andrew Scott shima ya yarda da irin wannan hujja:

Dauki wasu kwayoyin, dafa tare da jujjuyawa kana jira. Wannan shine tsarin zamani akan lamarin. ‘Tushen’ karfin jifa, electromagnetism da karfi da rashin karfin nukiliya ana sa ran zasu karasa sauran aiki…Amma nawa ne suka rage? A gaskiya, sunadaran dake kowane mataki, daga sunadarai izuwa farkon tantanin da suka fara bayyana, gab ace ta tattaunawa ko kuma gaba dayansa rudani ne.2

1 Fred Hoyle, The Intelligent Universe, New York: Holt, Rinehard & Winston, 1983, p. 256.

2 Andrew Scott, "Update on Genesis", New Scientist, Vol. 106, 2 May 1985, p. 30

Gwajin Fox bai samu karbuwa a tsarar masana kimiyya ba saboda ya bayyana a fili cewa jerin amino acid din da bashi da ma’ana (proteinoids) da samu bai iya samuwa ta kyakkyawan yanayi ba. Haka kuma, sunadarai, sune tashoshin rayuwa, sun kasa samuwa. Matsalar Asalin rayuwar sunadarai har yanzu ta kasa warwaruwa. A kasidar data fito a shahararriyar mujallar kimiyyar shekara ta 1970, Chemical Engineering News, an fadi gwajin Miller kamar haka:

Sydney Fox da wasu masu binciken sun yi kokarin hade kan amino acid ta sifar “proteinoid” ta hanyar amfani da dafa kayan aikin ta yanayin da a hakikani bai wanzu bas am a cikin matakin yanayin dadaddiyar kasa. Kuma, basu yi kama da irin sunadaran dake jikin rayayyun halittu ba. Basu da wani amfani, kawai dauda ce. Ana cewa koda wadannan kwayoyin sun faro daga farkon Lokaci, to tabbas zasu tarwatse.123

Hakika, proteinoid din da Fox ya samar sun saba da sunadaran gaskiya ta sifa da aiki. Bambancin sunadarai “proteins” da “proteinoids” yayi yawa kamar bambanci ne tsakanin na’ura mai cike da fasaha da tarin kayan aiki da ba’a fara sarrafa su ba.

Saboda haka, babu wata kafa koda ga wadannan jirkitattun amino acid su rayu a yanayin kasa ba. Gasu da guba da lalacewa ta zahiri sakamakon riskar hasken ultraviolet da rashin zaunannen yanayi zai sanya protenoid din su hargitse. Saboda Le Chatelier Principle, shine yana da wahala ga amino acid su hadu ta ruwa inda hasken ultraviolet ba zai iya riskarsu ba. Saboda haka ne, hikimar cewa proteinoid sune tushen rayuwa ya rasa magoya baya daga sawun masana kimiyya.

Mu’jiza A cikin Kwayar Komayya: DNA

dna, dna molekülü

Dukkan bayanai akan rayayyun halittu an cusa sune a cikin jigidar halittar DNA. Wannan wani kasaitaccen tsarin ajiyar bayanai ne wanda shi kansa shaida ce mabayyaniya dake nuna cewa rayuwa bata samu kwatsam ba, amma tsararriya ce bisa hikima, ko mafi kyau ace, halittarta akai.

Jarrabawarmu a matakin kwayoyin izuwa yanzu ta nuna mana cewa amino acid dai ya kasa samuwa a hannun masana juyin halitta. Samuwar sunadaran ita kanta matsala ce, duk da haka matsalolin basu tsaya akan amino acid da sunadaran ba: wadannan mafari ne kawai. Abin ya shallake kansu, kyakkyawar sifar tantanin halitta yana kai masanan ga dagulewar al’amura. Dalili kuwa shine tantanin halitta ba wai kawai tarin daruruwan sunadaran amino acid bane; wani rayayyan tsari ne da yake da daruruwan tsare-tsare managarta wanda ya sanya mutum kasa warware matsalarta. Hadadden tsari, wanda masana juyin halitta suka kasa bayanin samuwar daidai da kankanin sashen tantanin halitta.

Yayin da ka’idar juyin halitta ta kasa samar da gamsash-shen bayani akan wanzuwar kwayoyin da suka hadu suka bada tantanin halitta, cigabansa ta fuskar kimiyyar Halittar jinni (genetics) da gano nucleic acid (DNA da RNA) sun sake samar da wasu matsalolin ga ka’idar juyin halitta. A 1955, aikin wasu masana kimiyya biyu, James Watson da Francis Crick, akan DNA ya dada samar da sabon fage a fannin ilmin halitta. Masana kimiyya da yawa sun karkatar da hankalinsu akan kimiyyar Halittar jinni (genetics). A yau, bayan binciken da aka yi shekaru masu yawa, jigidar Halittar DNA ta fito fili sosai.

Jigidar halittar da ake kira DNA, wadda aka gano ta a cikin nucleus din kowane daya daga tiriliyan 100 na tantanin halittar dake jikinmu, wanda yake dauke da taswirar ginin jikin mutum. Bayanan dake dauke da dukkanin jikin mutum, tun daga sifa ta zahiri izuwa gabban cikin jiki, suna rubuce a cikin DNA ta hanyar wani kebantaccen tsari na coding system da turanci. Bayanan dake DNA suna dauke ne tsakanin wasu tashoshi na musamman wadanda suka hadu suka bada jigidar halittar. Wadannan tashoshi sune a matsayin A, T, G, C, kamar farkon kalmomin sunayensu yake. Dukkanin bambancin zubin halittar mutane ya dogara ne akan bambancin jeruwar wadannan haruffa. Wannan wani jerin bayanai ne da suka kunshi haruffan hudu.

Jerin da haruffan suka yi a jikin DNA shine yake tabbatar da irin sifar dan Adam har izuwa mafi kankantar bayanai. Kari akan sifofi kamar tsawo, ido, gashi, da launin jiki, DNA daga cikin tantani daya shima yana dauke da nau’in zanen kasusuwa 206, jijiyoyi 600, da hade-haden jijiyoyi 10,000, tashoshin jijiyoyin da suke kai sako miliyan 2, kwayoyin jijiyoyin kai sako biliyan 100, dogwayen jijiyoyi masu hada juna biliyan 130 da tantani tiriliyan 100 a ckin jiki. Idan da zamu rubuta bayanan da suke cikin DNA, to kuwa zamu hada babban dakin ajiye littattafai ne (library) mai daukar littafi mujalladai 900 dauke da shafuka 500 na tarihi a cikin kowane daya. Wannan kasaitaccen bayani a cure shine a cikin bangarorin DNA da ake kira “genes”.

Shin DNA Zai Wanzu Kwatsam?

Francis Crick, profesör

Prof. Francis Crick: Asalin rayuwa ya zama mu’jiza

A daidai wannan gaba, akwai wani bayani da yake bukatar kulawa. Wani kuskure a jerin nucleotides din da suka hadu suka bada gene zasu sanya gene din ya zamana bashi da amfani. Yayin da aka dauka cewar akwai kwayoyin gene dubu 200 a jikin mutum, shaidar zata fito fili yadda zasu hadu su bada wadannan genes a jere a bangaren dama kwatsam. Wani masanin halitta, Frank Salisbury, yayi ta’aliki akan rashin yiwuwar da yace:

Matsakaicin sunadari zai iya daukar watakila amino acid 300. Jigidar DNA dake juya wannan zata samu a kalla nucleotides 1,000 a sarkarta. Tunda akwai nau’I hudu na nucleotides a sarkar DNA, daya na dauke da hanyoyi 1,000 to zai iya wanzuwa a 41,000. Bari muyi dan lissafi ta hanyar aljebra (logarithms) zamu iya gani cewa 41000 = 10600. Goma ta tara da kanta sau 600 zai bada alif 1 da sifilai 600 ! Wannan adadi ya shallake fahimtarmu.124

Adadin 41000 daidai yake da 10600. Wannan adadi ya samu ta hanyar kara sifilai 600 ga alif 1. Kamar harafai 10 tare da sifilai 11 na nuni ga tiriliyan, adadi mai sifilai 600 hakika adadi ne da kai ba zai iya dauka ba. Rashin yiwuwar samun RNA da DNA ta hanyar kwatsam daga nucleotides ya fito a zancen masanin kimiyyar France Paul Auger kamar haka :

Dole ne bambance tsakanin matakai biyu a yiwuwar samun hadaddun kwayoyi kamar nucleotides ta hanyar cakuduwar yanayi. Samar da nucleotides daya bayan daya - wanda yake yiwuwa – da cakuduwar wadannan ta kebantacciyar hanya. Na biyunma abu ne wanda bashi yiwuwa.125

dna molekülü, watson ve crick

Watson da Crick tare da jerin jigidar halittar DNA na itace.

Har Francis Crick ma, wanda shekaru masu yawa yayiwa kansa ikirari bayan ya gano cewa DNA wani hadadden kwayoyi ne da ba zai samu kwatsam ba, sakamakon hanyoyin juyin halitta :

Mutum mai gaskiya, wanda yake da ilman da muke dasu yanzu, kawai zai iya cewa, ta wasu sassa, asalin rayuwa kusan a yanzu ina ganin mu’jiza ce.126

Masanin Turkiyya Prof. Ali Demisroy ya sha matsin da ya fito yayi wannan ikirari akan batun :

Hakika, yiwuwar samun sunadari da kuma nucleic acid (DNA-RNA) tafarki ne mai wuyar sha’ani. Haka kuma, sararin bayyanar wata sarkar sunadari saura kiris a kirawo shi falaki.127

Wata takkamadama mai ban sha’awa a wannan gaba: yayin da DNA zai iya aiwatuwa tare da taimakon wasu kanan enzymes wadanda a hakikani, suma sunadarai ne, jerin wadannan enzymes za’a iya samunsu ne kadai a cikin bayanan dake cure a DNA.

Duka biyun sun dogara ne akan kowane daya, kodai sun wanzu don su hadu a Lokaci guda, ko kuma daya daga cikiinsu dole a “halicce shi” kafin dayan. Masanin kwayoyin na Amurka Jacobson yayi jawabi akan gabar:

Jan ragamar samar da tsare-tsare, don kuzari da cire sassa daga yanayin yanzu, don yin girma, da kuma gabobin da suka fassara umarni izuwa girman jiki-duk zasu bayyana a daidai lokacin (Lokaci da rayuwa ta fara). Wannan hadakar shiri abu ne wanda faruwarsa take da nakasu, kuma ana daukarsa abu ne daga Ubangiji.128

Ikirari Daga Masana Juyin Halitta

Lissafe-lissafen yiwuwar samun sunadari ya fito a cikin hadaddun kwayoyin kamar sunadaran gina jiki da nucleic acids (RNA da DNA) bai ci ace sun samu kwatsam daban-daban. Duk da haka masana juyin halitta dole ne su hadu da matsalar da tafi matsalar da suka sha fama akan wadannan don rayuwa ta wanzu ma. Juyin halitta yana tattare da wannan ka’idoji. Akan wannan ne da yawa daga masana juyin halitta suka sha matsin da suka rika fitowa suna ikirarin gaskiya. Misali, Stanley Miller da Francis Crick da makusantan abokai daga Jami’ar San Diego California, wani masanin juyin halitta Dr. Leslie Orgel yace:

Ba zai yiwu sunadarai da nucleic acid, dukkaninsu hadaddu ne, kuma sun hadu a wuri daya a Lokaci daya. Sannan, daga farkon fari, dole mutum ya yarda da cewa rayuwa, a hakikani, ba zata samu ta hanyar jujjuyawar sunadarai ba.1

Irin wannan hujja ce sauran masana kimiyya suka yarda da ita:

DNA ba zai iya aikinsa shi kadai ba, hada da samar da wasu DNA, ba tare da taimakon sunadarai masu rage illa, ko enzymes. A takaice, sunadarai basu samuwa ba tare da DNA ba, shima DNA ba zai iya samuwa ba tare da sunadarai ba.2

Ta yaya aka samu Genetic Code, tare da na’urar dake fassara ta (ribosomes da RNA), suka wanzu ?A yanzu dai, zamu yardarwa kanmu abin mamaki cike da tsoro na girmammawa, a maimakon amsashi.3

Mai rawaito labaran mujallar kimiyyar The New York Times, Nicholas Wade yayi irin wannan jawabi a kasidar da aka buga a shekara ta 2000:

Duk wani abu da za’a fada akan Asalin rayuwa tatsuniya ce, yayin da kokarin sani, yayin nan ake kara shiga halin rudani.4

1 Leslie E. Orgel, "The Origin of Life on Earth", Scientific American, vol. 271, October 1994, p. 78

2 John Horgan, "In the Beginning", Scientific American, vol. 264, February 1991, p. 119

3 Douglas R. Hofstadter, Gödel, Escher, Bach: An Eternal Golden Braid, New York, Vintage Books, 1980, p. 548

4- Nicholas Wade, "Life's Origins Get Murkier and Messier", The New York Times, June 13, 2000, pp. D1-D2

An rubuta maganar ne shekaru biyu bayan an bayyana batun jigidar halittar DNA daga James Watson da Fracis Crick. amma duk da cigaban kimiyya, masana juyin halitta sun kasa warware wannan matsala. Jamusawa masana kimiyya su biyu Junker da Scherer sun bayyana cewa haduwar kowane daya daga cikin kwayoyin na bukatar juyin halittar sunadarai, mai tilasta bambancin yanayi, da kuma yiwuwar cakuduwar wadannan kwayoyin ganin a ka’idance ya karbi bambancin tsarin sifili.

Izuwa yanzu, babu gwaji da aka sani inda za’a samu dukkanini kwayoyin don tabbatar da juyin halittar sunadarai. Saboda haka, yana da kyau a samar da ire-iren kwayoyin ta hanyoyi daban-daban karkashin kyakkyawan yanayi sannan kuma a daukesu izuwa wani wurin da zasu yi aiki ta hanayar karesu daga abubuwan da zasu illata su kamar hydrolysis da photolysis.129

A takaice, ka’idar juyin halitta yaki tabbatar da wani matakin juyin halitta da ake zargin ya afku a matakin kwayoyin. Maimakon samar da amsoshin wadannan tambayoyi, cigaban kimiyya sai mayar dasu yake cakudaddu kuma sunyi kusan da ba zasu iya rabuwa ba.

Abin sha’awa, masana juyin halitta sun yarda da dukkanin wadannan labaran da basu yiwu ba kai kace hujjojin kimiyya ne.

Tunda an Kaddara musu kin yarda da halitta, to basu da wata dama illa su yarda da rashin yiwuwar. Wani shahararren masanin halitta daga kasar Australia, Micheal Denton ya bada labari akan wannan gaba a littafinsa Evolution: A Theory in Crisis:

Ba da son ranmu ba, maganar cewa kololuwar kwayoyin halittar jini, sun kunshi kusan bayanai kusa da miliyan dari, daidai da yawan jerin harafai a kamar maktaba dake dauke da dubban mujalladai, dake cikin dubban kalmomin lissafin jerin logarithms, tantancewa, da jeruwar bisa tsarin girma da bunkasar biliyoyin tantanin halitta izuwa hadaddun kwayoyin, sun kunsu a cikin wani tataccen bazuwar yanayi ta sassaukan dalili. Amma ga ma’abota Darwiniyanci, sun yarda da hikimar ba tare da wani kokanto ba – yanayin ya dauki cigaba! 130

Wani Korarin Ma’abota Juyin Halitta Watsatstse “The RNA World”

Leslie Orgel, profesör

Dr. Leslie Orgel: “... life could never, in fact, have originated by chemical means.”

Binciken da akayi tun a 1970 akan cewa iskokan gas asali sun wanzu a dadadden yanayin duniya da ya sanya amino acid cakudadde rashin yiwuwa babbar karya ce akan ka’idar juyin halittar kwayoyin. Sannan aka fahimci cewa “dadadden yanayin halittar gwaje-gwajen” masana kamarsu Miller, Fox da Ponnamperuma ba gaskiya bane. SAboda wannan dalili ne, a cikin 1980 sababbin masana juyin halitta suma suka yunkuro. A sakamakon haka, Labarin “RNA World” ya samu gabatuwa, wadda take cewa ba sunadarin ne ya fara samuwa ba, amma jigigar halittar RNA wadda take dauke da bayanan sunadaran. Kamar yadda wannan labari ya fito daga bakin WalterGilbert, wani masanin hade-haden sunadarai daga Harvard a 1986, biliyoyin shekaru da suka shude halittar RNA tayi sa’ar hada kanta kwatsam. Sannanwannan halitta ta RNA ta fara samar da sunadaran da suke nunkuwa ta makwabcin yanayi. Daga nan, sai yazama wajibi tara wannan bayanai a kwaya ta biyu, kawai sai ga jigidar halittar DNA ta samu.

Ta kunshi jerin sarkokin da ba zasu yiwu a kowane mataki ba, wannan tatsuniya mai wahalar kintatar samuwa ta hada matsalolin ne wuri guda kuma ta taso da tambayoyi masu rikitarwa maimakon samar da wasu bayanai akan asalin rayuwa.

1. Yayin da bayanin samuwar koda dayan nucleotide wanda ya hadu ya bada RNA yayi wuya, ta kaka zai yiwu ga wadannan hasashen nucleotides din su hadu su samar da RNA a kyakkywan jeri ? Masani juyin halitta John Horgan ya yarda da rashin yiwuwar samun RNA kamar haka ;

Kamar yadda masu bincike suke ta cigaba da nazarin RNA-World, matsaloli da yawa sun taso. Ta yaya RNA ya fara bayyana? RNA da sauran bangarorinsa suna da wuyar haduwa a dakin gwaje-gwaje karkashin mafi kyawun yanayi; kasa da gurbataccen yanayi. 131

2. Koda idan mun zaci cewa sun samu kwatsam, ta yaya wannan RNA wanda hadakar saukakan sarkar nucleotide ne da suka “yanke shawarar” su rubanya kansu da irin tsarin da zasu aiwatar da haka? A ina ta samo nucleotide din da tayi amfani dashi? Har ma masana juyin halitta kuma masana kwayoyin halitta Gerald Joyce da Leslie Orgel sun bayyana irin damuwarsu ga halin da ake ciki a littafinsu mai suna “In The RNA World” .

Wannan tattaunawa…ta, tattare hankalinta akan sirrin mutum: Labarin rubanyawar jigidar halittar RNA data taso daga kumfar rowan miyar polynucleotides. Ba wai kawai maganar ta bada hasken fahimtar abinda muke tsammani ba, amma zata karfafa koda mafi kankantar Magana ko ra’ayi akan jerin RNA.132

3. Idan da zamu yi zaton cewa akwai rubanyawar kai ga RNA a dadadden yanayin kasa, to wadancan amino acid na kowane nau’I da suke shirin aiki da RNA sun wadata kuma dukkanin rashin yiwuwar ta samu gabata, har ila yau yanayin baya shiryarwa izuwa samun sarkar sunadari. Domin RNA ya kunshi bayanai ne da suka shafi tsarin sunadarai kawai. Amino acids a daya bangaren kuwa, kayan aiki ne. Duk da haka, babu wani yanayi da ya wanzy don samar da sunadari. Duban wanzuwar RNA da isuwa wajen samar da sunadarai sakarci ne kamar dai muyi zaton zanen mota ne a takarda tare da zana dukkan bangarorin jikinta kuma ta tashi ta zama mota ne. Anan, samarwa ma bai taso ba tunda masana’anta ko ma’aikata da suka shiga cikin haduwa.

Sundarin gina jiki yana samuwa ne a masanan’antar ribosome tare da taimakon enzymes masu yawa kuma a sakamakon hadadden tsarin dake tsakanin tantanin halitta. Ribosome wani hadadden tantanin halitta ne dake dauke da sunadarai. Saboda haka, wannan hali ya taso da wani shirme na cewa ribosome, shima yaci ace ya wanzu kwatsam a lokacin. Har Jacques Monod wanda yaci gasar rubutu kuma daya daga cikin masu kare juyin halitta, yayi bayanin cewa jerin bayanan dake cikin nucleic acids:

Curin bayanan basu da amfani mutukar ba’a fassara suba. Na’uarar zamani ta fassara bayanan da cewa tana dauke ne da akalla jerin kananan kwayoyin hamsin wadanda akaran kansu suna cure ne a DNA: Curin bayanan ba zai iya fassaruwa ba idan bata hanyar samar da fassara ba. Itace kalamar da a zamanance ake cewa omne vivum ex ovo. Yaushe ne kuma yaya wannan zagayen yake rufe ? Lallai yana wahala zaton hakan.133

Ta yaya sarkar RNA a dadadden yanayin kasa zasu yanke irin wannan hukunci kuma wacce irin hanya zasu yi amfani da ita don samar da sunadari ta daukar kananan kwayoyi hamsin don yin aikinta ? Masana juyin halitta basu da amsar wadannan tambayoyi.

Dr. Leslie Orgel, daya daga cikin abokan aikin Stanley Miller da Francis Crick daga Jami’ar San Diego California, yayi amfani da kalmar “scenario” wajen yiwuwar “Asalin rayuwa ta hanyar RNA World”. Orgel ya kwatanta irin sifofin da wannan RNA zai samu da yadda rashin yiwuwar yake a kasidarta mai suna “The Origin of Life” da aka buga a American Scientist a watan Oktoba 1994:

Wannan labari yaci ace ya afku, mun duba, idan prebiotic RNA yana da bangarori guda biyu wadanda basu ganu yau ba: Karifn rubanya kai ba tare da taimakon sunadarai ba da ikon juya kowane matakin cakuda sunadarai.134

Zai fi fitowa fili, ayi zaton wadannan hadaddun kwayoyin masu muhimmanci daga kwayoyin kamar RNA zai samu ta karfin zaton masana juyin halitta da ra’ayoyinsu.Hujjar kimiyya mai karfi, ta daya hannun, ta fito dashi fili cewa “RNA World”, wanda sabon salo ne da ake gabatar don muna yiwuwar samun rayuwa kwatsam, alhali kuwa tatsuniya ce.

Masanin sunadaran kwayoyin halitta Gordon C. Mills daga Jami’ar Texas da Dean Kenyon daga Jami’ar San Francisco State sunyi nazari akan sahihancin Labarin RNA World, kuma sun bada Takaitaccen rahotonsu a kasidarsu mai taken “The RNA World: A critique”: “RNA kwayoyin masu ban sha’awa. Kuma sunadarin RNA World wata kwayar halittar ce. Bamu ga wani bigiren da zamu iya cewa tabbatacciya ce, ko muke sa ran tabbata.”135

Marubucin kimiyya Brig Wyce a kasidar ta 2001 yayi bayanin cewa masana juyin halitta sun tara karfinsu akan wannan batu, amma sakamakon da muka samu izuwa yanzu ya nuna mana cewa wadannan yunkuri sun kare a tabewa:

Bincike akan RNA Wrold wani matsakaicin masana’antu ne. Wannan bincike ya nuna yadda wuyar rayayyan tantanin halitta ya samu kwatsam daga matattun kwayoyin haltta a wani Lokaci aban kasa. Wancan nunin gudunmawa ce babba ga kimiyya. Karin binciken shima zai zama mai muhimmanci. Amma ayi ta cewa rayuwa zata iya samuwa daga matattun sunadarai a fuskar sababbi yana da wuya. Wani aiki ne na Mutanen da wadanda suke matsawa akan bin wannan tafarki.136

Rayuwa Ta Zarce Ace Kawai Tarin Wasu Kwayoyin Halitta Ne

dna, enzim

Bari mu manta dukkanin yiwuwar ta wani lokaci kuma mu zaci cewa sunadarin ya samu ta gurbatacciya, kuma ta hanyar dadadden yanayin kasa. Samuwar sunadari ya jira da hakuri tsawon dubban shekaru, watakila miliyoyi ma ba tare da samun illa ba, har sai wani sunadarin ya samu kusa da ita kwatsam ta yanayi iri daya. Dole ta jira har sai miliyoyin daidaitattun sunadarai sun samu gefe da gefe a tsari daya dake shirya dukkanin bayyana kwatsam wadannan da suka samu tun farko sai sun hakurin jira iyakar jira, ba tare da tarwatsewa ba duk da hasken ultraviolet da illarsa, don sauran su samu dama dasu. To wadannan sunadarai ta adadi masu yawa, wadanda suka faro a wuri guda, sai sun hadu sun cakude don su bada hadi mai ma’ana da samun tantanin halitta. Babu wasu sunadarai, kwayoyi masu cutarwa, ko sarkar sunadarai marasa amfani zasu kusantasu. Sannan, koda idan wadannan kwayoyin zasu hadu wuri guda ta hadaddiyar kungiya tare da tsari da shiri, to dole su dauki duk muhimman enzymes kusa dasu kuma a rufe suke da fatar tantanin, ciki ya cika da wani ruwa wanda zai sanya yanayin ya zama mai yiwuwa a gare su. Yanzu koda wadannan yanayin zasu yi mutukar samuwa kwatsam, shin wannan tarin kwayoyin halittar zai rayu ?

Amsar dai itace a’a, saboda bincike ya nuna cewa hadakar dukkanin bangarorin da zasu iya samar da rayuwa ba zai isa rayuwa ta faru ba. Koda dukkanin muhimman sunadaran samar da rayuwa sun hadu a kwalbar gwaji, wadannan yunkurin ba zai bada sakamakon samar da rayayyen tantanin halitta ba. Dukkanin gwajin da aka gabatar akan wannan gaba bai yi nasara ba. Duk wani nazari da bincike ya tabbatar da cewa rayuwa zata iya samuwa ne daga rayuwa kawai. Maganar da ake yi cewa rayuwa ta faro ne daga halittu maras rai, a wasu kalmomin, “abiogenesis”, tatsuniya ce kawai data wanzu a mafarkan masana juyin halitta da yin hannun riga da sakamakon gwaje-gwajen da nazarce-nazarce.

Saboda haka, rayuwar farko aban kasa dole ne ta samo asali da wata rai. Wannan yayi daidai da bayanin Ubangiji “Hayy” (Mamallakin Rai). Rayuwa zata iya farawa, ta cigaba, kuma ta kare da ikonSa. Ga masana juyin halitta kuwa, ba wai kawai kasa bayanin yadda rayuwa ta fara ba, sun kasa bayanin yadda kwayoyin sunadaran da suka hadu suka yi rayuwar.

Chandra Wickramasinghe yayi bayani akan hakikanin abinda yake fuskanta a matsayinsa na masani kimiyya wanda iya rayuwarsa aka sanar dashi cewa rayuwa ta samu kwatsam :

Tun daga farkon horo na a matsayin masanin kimiyya, an juyar da fahimtata akan yarda da cewa kimiyya ba zata yi daidai da wani abin dake yin halitta ba. Wannan magana yanzu an wanke ta da zafi. A yanzu, bani da wata hujja da zata iya karkatar dani ga barin yadda da Ubangiji. Mun kasance muna da budaddiyar zuciya ; yanzu kuwa mun fahimci cewa hanya daya da zata iya bada amsar rayuwa ita halitta- amma ba ta hanyar kwatsam ba.137

 

Footnotes

104 W. R. Bird, The Origin of Species Revisited., Nashville: Thomas Nelson Co., 1991, pp. 298-99.

105 "Hoyle on Evolution", Nature, Vol 294, November 12, 1981, sh. 105.

106 Ali Demirsoy, Kalitim ve Evrim (Inheritance and Evolution), Ankara: Meteksan Publishing Co., 1984, sh. 64.

107 W. R. Bird, The Origin of Species Revisited. Nashville: Thomas Nelson Co., 1991, sh. 304.

108 Ibid, sh. 305.

109 J. D. Thomas, Evolution and Faith. Abilene, TX, ACU Press, 1988. sh. 81-82.

110 Robert Shapiro, Origins: A Sceptics Guide to the Creation of Life on Earth, New York, Summit Books, 1986. sh.127.

111 Fred Hoyle, Chandra Wickramasinghe, Evolution from Space, New York, Simon & Schuster, 1984, sh. 148.

112 Ibid, sh. 130.

113 Fabbri Britannica Bilim Ansiklopedisi (Fabbri Britannica Science Encyclopaedia), vol 2, No 22, sh. 519.

114 Richard B. Bliss & Gary E. Parker, Origin of Life, California: 1979, sh. 14.

115 Stanley Miller, Molecular Evolution of Life: Current Status of the Prebiotic Synthesis of Small Molecules, 1986, sh. 7.

116 Kevin Mc Kean, Bilim ve Teknik, No 189, sh. 7.

117 J. P. Ferris, C. T. Chen, "Photochemistry of Methane, Nitrogen, and Water Mixture As a Model for the Atmosphere of the Primitive Earth", Journal of American Chemical Society, vol 97:11, 1975, sh. 2964.

118 "New Evidence on Evolution of Early Atmosphere and Life", Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, vol 63, November 1982, sh. 1328-1330.

119 Richard B. Bliss & Gary E. Parker, Origin of Life, California, 1979, sh. 25.

120 W. R. Bird, The Origin of Species Revisited, Nashville: Thomas Nelson Co., 1991, p. 325.

121 Richard B. Bliss & Gary E. Parker, Origin of Life, California: 1979, sh. 25.

122 Ibid.

123 S. W. Fox, K. Harada, G. Kramptiz, G. Mueller, "Chemical Origin of Cells", Chemical Engineering News, June 22, 1970, sh. 80.

124 Frank B. Salisbury, "Doubts about the Modern Synthetic Theory of Evolution", American Biology Teacher, September 1971, sh. 336.

125 Paul Auger, De La Physique Theorique a la Biologie, 1970, sh. 118.

126 Francis Crick, Life Itself: It's Origin and Nature, New York, Simon & Schuster, 1981, sh. 88.

127 Ali Demirsoy, Kalitim ve Evrim (Inheritance and Evolution), Ankara: Meteksan Publishing Co., 1984, sh. 39.

128 Homer Jacobson, "Information, Reproduction and the Origin of Life", American Scientist, January 1955, sh.121.

129 Reinhard Junker & Siegfried Scherer, "Entstehung Gesiche Der Lebewesen", Weyel, 1986, sh. 89.

130 Michael Denton, Evolution: A Theory in Crisis. London: Burnett Books, 1985, sh. 351.

131 John Horgan, "In the Beginning", Scientific American, vol. 264, February 1991, sh. 119.

132 G.F. Joyce, L. E. Orgel, "Prospects for Understanding the Origin of the RNA World", In the RNA World, New York: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, 1993, sh. 13.

133 Jacques Monod, Chance and Necessity, New York: 1971, p.143.

134Leslie E. Orgel, "The Origin of Life on the Earth", Scientific American, Ekim 1994, vol. 271, sh. 78.

135 Gordon C. Mills, Dean Kenyon, "The RNA World: A Critique", Origins & Design, 17:1, 1996

136 Brig Klyce, The RNA World, http://www. panspermia.org/rnaworld.htm

137Chandra Wickramasinghe, Interview in London Daily Express, August 14, 1981.

12 / total 22
You can read Harun Yahya's book Rudun Juyin Halitta online, share it on social networks such as Facebook and Twitter, download it to your computer, use it in your homework and theses, and publish, copy or reproduce it on your own web sites or blogs without paying any copyright fee, so long as you acknowledge this site as the reference.
Bayani akan shafin | Make your homepage | Add to favorites | RSS Feed
All materials can be copied, printed and distributed by referring to author “Mr. Adnan Oktar”.
(c) All publication rights of the personal photos of Mr. Adnan Oktar that are present in our website and in all other Harun Yahya works belong to Global Publication Ltd. Co. They cannot be used or published without prior consent even if used partially.
© 1994 Harun Yahya. www.harunyahya.com - info@harunyahya.com
page_top