Evolution Hoax

Rudun Juyin Halitta

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Babi Na 13 - Da’awar Ma’abota Juyin Halitta da Hujjojinsu

A babukan da suka gabata, mun yi nazari akan rashin ingancin ka’idar juyin halitta dangane da shaudun da aka samo a burbushin da wanda ake dasu a ilmin sanin kwayoyin halittu. A wannan babi kuwa, zamu yi nazari akan adadin ra’ayoyi da zantuttukan da aka gabatar a matsayin ka’idojin masana juyin halitta. Wadannan gabar tattaunawa suna da muhimmanci musamman saboda suna nuna cewar babu wani binciken kimiyya da yake goyon bayan juyin halitta sai dai ma ta bayyana mutukar rushewa da dagula hanyoyin da masana suke gabatarwa.

Bambanci da Jinsuna

Variations Within Species Do Not Imply Evolution
köpek, varyasyon

In The Origin of Species, Darwin confused two separate concepts: variations within a species and the emergence of an entirely new one. Darwin observed the variety within the various breeds of dogs, for example, and imagined that some of these variations would one day turn into a different species. Even today evolutionists persist in seeking to portray variations within species as “evolution”.

However, it is a scientific fact that variations within a species are not evolution. For instance, no matter how many breeds of dog there are, these will always remain a single species. No transition from one distinct species to another will ever take place.

Bambanci (Variation), kalma ce da ake amfani da ita a fannin ilmin gadar halitta wato genetics, ma’anarta shine wani abu ne da yake faruwa a cikin kowane mutum ko dandazon mutane daga wasu yanayin jinsuna dake duniya suna dauke bayanan halittar jinsunsu, shine yasa dogon hanci, ko wasu gajeru gwargwadon bambancin dake dauke a cikin bayanan halittar jinsinsu.

Masana juyin halitta sun shelanta bambancin dake tsakanin jinsunan a matsayin shaida ga ka’idarsu. Koda yake, bambancin bay a shaida ga juyin halitta saboda bambancin yana fitowa ne a sakamakon hadakar da ake samu daga mabanbantan bayanan halittar jinni wadanda da can suke kuma basa komai akan bayanan.

Bambancin yana afkuwa ne a kayyade. A ilmin halittar jini, ana kiran wannan kayyadewa “gene pool”. Dukkanin sifofin da suka fito a gene pool zasu bayyana ta hanyoyi daban – daban saboda bambance – bambance dake cikin jinsuna. Misali, a sakamakon bambancin, akan iya samu, a jinsunan halittu masu rarrafe, nau’in da suke da dogwayen jela ko gajerun kafafuwa, domin dogwayen kafafuwa da gajeru bayanai sun gabata a gene pool dinsu. Bayan haka, bambancinsu bay a canza su daga dabbobi masu rarrafe zuwa tsuntsaye ta hanyar kara musu fuka-fukai, ko canza musu yanayin tafiya. Samun wannan canji kuwa yana bukatar karn bayanan Halittar jinin rayayyun halittu wanda bambancinsu yake sauki.

Lokacin da Darwin ya tsara ka’idarsa bashi da masaniya akan wannan lokacin. Yayi zaton cewa babu iyaka gan bambancin jinsi. A wata kasida da ya rubuta a 1844 yace: “Takaita akan bambancin jinsi ya wanzu a yanayi dagga bakin marubuta, koda yake har yanzu ban gano wata hujja akan yadda aka samo hakan ba.” 150 A littafin The Origin of Species ya kawo misalai akan bambancin nau’ukan shanu domin ya kawo sababbin nau’o’i wadanda suke samara da madara, da alama zasu rikida zuwa wasu nau’ukan. Batun Darwin akan “rashin takaitar nau’i” ana iya gain a cikin jumla mai zuwa daga littafin The Origin of Species:

Ina ganin babu wata wahala a jinsin Karen ruwa, wadanda suka samu Daga zabin yanayi, suka samu dabi’un ‘yan ruwa, bakunansu na kara Girma da yawa, har dai ta kai wata halittar ta samu daga garesu kamar Kifi whale.151

Dalilin da yasa Darwin ya kawo wannan misalin shine tsohuwar hanyar fahimtar kimiyya a lokacinsu. Tun daga nan, a karni na 20 kimiyya ta canzawa tsarin “tabbatar ilmin ijnsin halitta” (genetic homeostasis) zama bisa sakamakon binciken da aka yi akan rayayyun halittu. Wannan ka’ida ta riki cewa duk wani yunkuri da aka yi don a samara da sabon nau’in halitta yaci tira kuma akwai shinge tsakanin bambanci dake tattare da jinsunan rayayyun halittu. Ma’anar haka kuwa shine abu ne mawuyaci dabba mai shayarwa ta juyar da saniya zuwa wani jinsin dabbar ta hanyar canjin bambancinsu kamar yadda Darwin ya tsara.

Norman Macbeth, ya karyata Darwiniyanci a littafinsa Darwin Re-tried, yake cewa:

Babbar matsalar itace ko rayayyun halittu suna bambanta zuwa wani mikidari mara kaidi… Jinsunan kamar sun tabbata. Duk munji rashin jin dadin da aka fuskanta akan masu shayarwa wadanda suke gabatar da ayykansu izuwa matsayin da za’a iya ganin dabbobin ko shukokin zasu koma yadda suka fara. Duk da yunkurin da aka yi kusan karni biyu zuwa uku, ba’a taba samun damar samar da shudiyar fure ko bakin fure.152

Luther Burbank, ya dauki mafi cancantar dabba mai shayarwa a kowane lokaci, da bayyana hujjarsa kamar yadda yake cewa “akwai shinge dangane da samuwar cigaba, kuma wannan takaitawa tana bin ka’ida ne.”153 wajen fito da wannan batu, masanin Kimiyyar kasar Denmark W.L. Johannsen yayi Karin bayani:

Bambancin da Darwin da Wallace suka karfafa basu shiga fiye da wani Mikidari ba, saboda a cikin bambancin babu sirrin ‘bazuwa mara tsari ba.”154

Juriyar Kwayoyi Masu kare Cututtuka da DDT Immmunity Ba Hujjoji bane Akan Juyin Halitta

The Myth That Whales Evolved from Bears
ayı, balina

In The Origin of Species, Darwin asserted that whales had evolved from bears that tried to swim! Darwin mistakenly supposed that the possibilities of variation within a species were unlimited. 20th century science has shown this evolutionary scenario to be imaginary.

Daya daga cikin ilman Kimiyyar Da masanan suke kokarin gabatarwa a matsayin hujja ko shaida akan ka’idarsu shine juriyar kwayoyi masu kare cuttuka. Kusan dukkanin rubuce-rubucen masanan sun nuna cewa juriyar “misali ne ga cigaban rayuwa ta hanyar maye gurbi.” Anyi wata da’awar mai kama da wannan akan kwari masu bambanci da sauran kwari kamarsu DDT.

Haka kuma, masanan suna afkawa cikin kuskure akan wannan ma.

Kwayoyi masu kare cututtuka suna “kashe kwayoyi” da suke fitowa daga tarin kwayoyi don suna yaki wasu kwayoyin. Farko daga cikinsu shine Penicillin, wanda Alexander Fleming ya gano a 1928. Fleming ya fahimci cewa mould yana samara da kwayoyin da suke kashe kwayoyin ciwon sanyi (staphylococcus bacteria), kuma wannan bincike ne ya zama babban harsashe a duniyar ilmin Kimiyyar hada magunguna. Kwayoyin kare cuta sun fit one daga wasu kananan kwayoyin halitta wadanda ake amfani dasu don kashe kwayoyin cuta kuma ana samun kyakkyawan sakamako.

A kusa, sai aka sake gano wani sabon abu. Kwayoyin cutar sun gina Katanga tsakaninsu da kwayoyin kare cutar lokaci bayan lokaci. Sunadaran suna aiki ne kamar haka: wani sashe mai yawa na kwayoyin cutar wadanda suka yi arangama da masu kashe su sai su mutu, amma sauran, wadanda basu gamu ba, sai su hayayyafa nan da nan su cike gurbin wadancan da adadi mai yawa. Saboda haka, gurbin dayan wadannan sai suyi Katanga ga barin masu kashe su.

Masana juyin halitta suna kokarin gabatar da wannan a matsayin “juyin Halittar kwayoyi masu yada cuta ta hanyar karbuwa ga mazauninsu.”

Gaskiya ta sha bamban da irin wadannan kirkirarrun zantuttuka. Daya daga cikin masana kimiyya wanda yayi zuzzurfan bincike akan wannan mas’ala shine Lee Spetner masanin halitta da Kimiyyar lissafi dan kasar Isra’ila, wanda aka sanshi dangane da littafinsa Not by Chance, an buga shi a 1997. spetner ya tabbatar da cewa katangar da kwayoyin cuta suka samu ta fito ne ta hanya mabanbanta guda 2, kuma babu daya daga cikinsu da yake nuna shaida ce ga ka’idar juyin halitta. Wadannan hanyoyi kuwa sune:

1) canza yanayin halittar da tuni kwayoyin suke dashi.
2) Ginin da kwayoyin suke don jurewa kwayoyi masu kashe su sakamakon rasa bayanan halittarsu saboda konewa.

Spetner yayi bayani akan na farko a cikin wata kasida da aka buga a 2001:

Wasu kananan kwayoyin halitta suna dauke da wasu sifofin halitta dake Sanya su jure wadannan kwayoyi masu kashe su. Wannan juriya na iya daukar sifa ta rage karfin kwayoyin kisa ko suki karbarsu ta tantanin halitta...kwayoyin dake da irin wadannan sifofi na iya canzasu zuwa wadannan jinsuna don su jure. Koda yake sunadaran ma sun kebanta izuwa wasu kwayoyin ne, mafi yawa daga kwayoyi masu…suna dashi sunyi sa’ar samun irinsu wadanda suke sanya musu juriya daga kowane irin kwayoyi masu halaka su.155

bakteri, antibiyotik

Evolutionists portray bacteria’s resistance to antibiotics as evidence of evolution—but in a deceptive way.

Spetner ya cigaba da cewa wannan ba “shaida ce akan juyin halitta ba”.

Samun juriyar kwayoyi masu halakarwa ta hanya….ba abu ne da kan sanya irin halittar da maye gurbi yake bukata ba wajen bayyana juyin halitta. Canjin bayanan da ake samu cikin halittar wanda zai nuna zahirin ka’idar ba wai kawai ya kara sabon bayani akan wasu kwayoyin halittar ake bukata ba. Tsaunin canza tsarin halittar yana bazuwa ne a kewayen halittu da tuni suka shiga cikin wasu jinsunan ne.156

Saboda haka, ba zamu iya wani zancen juyin halitta anan ba, saboda babu wani bayani na sabuwar Halittar da aka samu: bayani da aka rigaya aka samu yana komawa ne tsakanin kwayoyin.

Katanga ta biyu, itace wadda take zuwa a sakamakon maye gurbi, kuma bata cikin misalan juyin halitta. Spetner ya rubuta cewa :

...kananan kwayoyin halitta wasu lokuta sukan samu juriya ta fuskar kwayoyi masu kare cuta ta cikin bazuwar tilon sunadarin nucleotide... streptomycin, wanda Salman Waksman da Albert Schatz suna gano kuma suka fara gabatar dashi a 1944, shima mai kare kwayoyin cuta ne wanda kwayoyin suke samun juriya. Amma koda yake maye gurbin da suke fuskanta asakamakon haka mai amfani ne ga kananan kwayoyin idan har akwai streptomycin, ba zai iya zama a matsayin irin kamannin kwayoyin da zai dace da maye gurbin da cigaban ka’idar Darwiniyanci ke bukata ba. Irin maye gurbin dake iya rike streptomycin yana nan a jikin jerin sunadaran a ribosome kuma ya rage karfin kwayoyin da suke tare da masu kare cututtuka. Wannan canjin da yake fitowa yana kare streptomycin daga aiwatar da aikinta. Ya bayyana cewa rage wannan aiki yana rage tsarin bayanan dake afkuwa a ciki. Muhimmin abinda za’a iya cewa shine (juyin halitta) ba zai taba yiwuwa ta irin wannan hanya ba, komai yawansu. Juyin halitta ba zai ginu da tara karfin tsarinas ba.157

A takaice dai, kwayoyin maye gurbi suna sauka a kwayoyin ribosome dake sanya kwayoyin jeruwa izuwa ga streptomycin. Dalilin haka shine “bazuwar” maye gurbi suka yiwa ribosome. Babu wani sabon bayanin kwayoyin jini da ya karu. Sabanin haka, tsarin da ribosome ya bazu, wato, kwayoyin sun “tawaya”. (haka kuma, an gano cewar ribosome din dake jikin kwayoyin gurbatattu basu da karfin aiki irin na lafiyayyun kwayoyi ba). Tunda wannan “tawaya” tana kare kwayoyin dake sanyawa su hadu da ribosome, daga nan ne “kwayoyin kariya” suke tasowa.

A karshe, babu wani misalign maye gurbin dake “tasowa ta bayanin Halittar jini”.

Haka wannan al’amarin yake dangane da kwarin da suka kebanta da samuwa ta DDT da wasu irin magungunan kashe su. Mafi yawa daga cikinsu, akwai su kuma ana aiki dasu. Masanin ilmin halitta mai Akidar juyin halitta Francisco Ayala ya karbi wannan hujja, da cewa, “Bambancin bayanan Halittar dake bukatar juriya ga mafi yawan sunadaran kashe kwari suna nan a cikin kowane dayan dandazon wadannan magungunan da mutum yayi”.158 Wasu daga cikinsu sun fito a cikin bayanin maye gurbi, kamar dai matattun ribosome yazo a sama, sune daga cikin wadanda suke haifar da “karewar bayanan Halittar jini” a cikin kwari.

Saboda haka, ba za’a iya riko da cewa kebantattun sunadaran dake jikin kwayoyin cutar da kwari shaida ce ga juyin halitta. Dalili kuwa shine ka’idar juyin halitta ta kafu ne vakan cewa rayayyun halittu sun samu ne ta maye gurbi. Haka kuma, Spetner yayi bayanin cewa babu daya daga cikin kebantattun kwayoyin kariya ko sauran sunadaran halitta da suke nuna misalin maye gurbi :

Ba’a taba ganin maye gurbin da fadada juyin halitta ke bukata ba. Babu bazuwar maye gurbi dake wakiltar irin wanda cigaban – Darwiniyanci yak enema wanda bayani akai nazari a matakin kwayoyi da ya kara wani bayani ba. Tambayar da nake Magana itace: shin maye gurbin da ake gain akan ka’idar na bukatar tallafi? Amsar dai itace Babu! 159

Shaci Fadi Akan Gabobi Marasa Aiki

körelmiş organlar, göz

1. Eyelid
2. Pupil

3. Sclera
4. iris

All instances of vestigial organs have been disproved in time. For example the semicircular fold in the eye, which was mentioned in the Origins as a vestigial structure, has been shown to be fully functional in our time, though its function was unknown in Darwin's time. This organ lubricates the eyeball.

Da dadewa, batun “Gabobi Marasa Aiki” sukan fito a rubuce – rubucen masana juyin halitta. Daga baya sai aka daina jinta saboda an tabbatar da cewa karya ce. Amma duk da haka wasu masanan sunyi imani akan hakan kuma daga lokaci zuwa lokaci wani sai yayi kokarin cigaba da kawo gabobi marasa aiki a matsayin shaida muhimmiya akan juyin halitta.

Wannan mas’ala ta “gabobi marasa aiki” an fara gabatar da ita ne shekara dari da suka wuce. Kamar yadda masanan suke son fadin haka, akwai halittu a jikin wasu dabbobi wasu gabobi da basa aiki. Wadannan gabobi sun gaje su ne daga magabatansu kuma sannu – sannu suka zamo basa aiki.

Wannan zato gaba dayansa babu kimiyya a ciki kuma an gina shi akan karamin sani. Wadannan “gabobi marasa aiki” hakika gabobi ne wadanda har yanzu “ba’a gano irin aikinsu ba”. Mafi kyawun misali shine raguwar adadin gabobi marasa aiki daga jerin adadin da masanan suka yi. S.R. Scadding, shima masanin ne, amma ya kalubalanci wannan hujja a kasidarsa mai taken “Shin gabobi marasa aiki zasu iya zama shaida ga juyin halitta?” wadda aka buga a mujallar Evolutionary Theory:

Tunda yana da wahala mutum ya iya gano gabbai marasa aiki, kuma tunda tsarin gabar da ake takaddama akai ba kimiyya bace, ina cewa “gabobi marasa aiki” bas a samara da wasu muhimman shaidu ga ka’idar juyin halitta.160

Jerin adadin da R. Wiedersheim masanin a 1895 ya hada sun kai gabobi 100 har da appendix da coccyx. Saboda cigaban da aka samu a kimiyya ne, aka gano cewa dukkanin gabban da Weidersheim ya lisafta suna da matukar muhimmanci a jiki. Misali, an gano cewa appendix, wadda ake ganin tana cikin “gabobi marasa aiki”, ashe hakika gab ace dake yaki da cututtuka a jiki wato lymphoid. An gano haka a shekarar 1997: “Sauran gabobin jiki da wasu sassa kamar thymus, liver, spleen, appendix, bone marrow, da wasu kananan gabobin kamarsu tonsils a cikin makogwaro da kuma Peyer’s patch a karamib hanji - suma suna cikin kananan gabobin. Suma suna taimakawa wajen karewa da yakar cututtuka.”161

An gano cewa tonsils, wadanda aka sanya a cikin jerin gabobi marasa aiki, suna da rawar da suke takawa wajen kare makogwaro daga cututtuka, musamman ma kafin shekarun girma. An binciko cewa coccyx a karshen gefen gwiwa dake taimakwa kasusuwan dake kokon gwiwa kuma mahada ce ta kananan jijiyoyi. Shekarun da suka biyo, an fahimci cewa thymus ya bude tsarin immunity system a jikin mutum ta hanyar tashin T cells, kuma pineal gland shine yake kula da fitar wasu muhimman kwayoyin hormones, kuma thyroid gland shine yake da alhakin samara da saurin girman jira – jirai da yara, kuma pituitary gland shine yake kula da ayyukan yawancin hormone gland. Dukkan wadannan an dauke su ada “gabobi marasa aiki”. Tantanin dake gafen cikin ido shima Darwin ya dauke saka shi cikin gabobi da gyara gashin ido.

Akwai wani Muhimmin kure a da’awar masanan akan gabobi marasa aiki. Kamar yadda muka yi bayani, da’awar masanan itace gabobi marasaaiki a jikin halittu sun gado sune daga magabatansu. Haka kuma wadansu daga cikin “gabobin” babu su a jikin jinsunan da ake da’awar magabatan mutum ne! Misali, wasu daga appendix din basu ma wanzu a wadansu jinsunan gwaggwon birin da aka ce magabatan mutum ne ba.shahararren masanin halittu H. Enoch, wanda ya kalubaci ka’idar gabobi marasa aiki ya bayyana wannan kuskure kamar haka:

Gwaggon birrai suna da appendix, bayan wadanda basu kai su girma ba, basu dashi, har yanzu ana ganin cikin wandannan halittu akwai kamar Opossum. Yaya masanan zasu iya bayanin wannan? 162

Muna iya cewa, hoton gabobi marasa aikin da masanan suka gabatar suna kunshe ne da rudu kuma an tabbatar a kimiyance karya ne. babu wata gaba mara aiki dake wanzuwa a jikin wasu ta hanyar kwatsam ba amma an halicce sun e da cikakkiya kuma hadaddiyar sifar da ake iya ganinsu.

Tarihin Homology

Tsarin kamance tsakanin jinsuna daban – daban sune ake kira “homology” a ilmin halitta. Masana juyin halitta sunyi kokarin su gabatar da wadancan kamance a matsayin shaida ga juyin halitta.

Darwin yayi tunanin cewa halittun da suke da gabobi (homologue) masu kama daya suna da alaka ta juyin halitta tsakaninsu kuma lallai ne ace wadannan gabobi sun gado su daga magabata daya. A riyawarsa, tattabaru, da mikiyoyi, hakika kuma duk sauran Tsuntsaye masu fuka-fukai ana zaton sun fito daga magabata daya.

Homology wata takaddamar yaudara ce da aka gabatar akan cewa babu wata shaida fiye da zahirin kamancen. Ba’a taba tabbatar da wannan takaddama a wani bincike a duk fadin zamaninsu Darwin ba. Ba’a taba hako wani burbushi a wani bangare na kasa dake nuna irin Halittar magabatan ba tare da sifar dake dauke da gabobin.

Haka kuma batutuwan dake zuwa sun bayyana cewa homology bai samara da shaida akan tabbatar juyin halitta ba.

1. Mutum zai iya samo gabobin homologue a halittun da jinsinsu ya bambanta a cikin wadanda masanan basu riga sun tabbatar da wata alaka ta juyin halitta tare dasu ba.
2. Jerin bayanan halittar wasu daga ciki mai dauke da gabobin homologue sun sha bamban da kowannensu.
3. Gabobin homologue dake tsarin mahaifa ya sha bamban a halittu mabanbanta.

Bari mu yi nazarin wadannan batutuwa bi da bi.

sinek, kanat

Eagles, bats and insects all have wings. Yet just because they possess similar organs does not prove that they evolved from any common ancestor.

kartal, kanat yarasa, kanat

Makamantan Gabobi A Rayayyun Jnisuna Mabanbanta

Akwai gabobin homologue masu yawa a jikin jinsuna daban – daban daga cikinsu akwai irin wadanda masanan suka kasa tabbatarwa ta kowace irin hanyar juyin halittar mutum. Fuka-fukai na daya daga cikin misali. Kari a jikin tsuntsaye, munga fuka-fuki a jikin jemage, wadda dabba ce mai haihuwa, da kwari har ma a jikin wasu nau’in dinosaur, wanda dadaddun dabbobi ne masu rarrafe. Babu wata alaka ko dangantaka da masana juyin halitta suka iya hadawa tsakanin wadannan nau’o’in dabbobi hudu.

Wani karin misalin mai ban al’ajabi shine tsarin kamanceceniyar idanu da aka gani daga halittu daban-daban. Misali, dorinar ruwa da mutum jinsunan halittu ne guda biyu wanda babu wata alaka ta juyin halitta da za’a iya samarwa, duk da haka idanunsu sunyi kama da juna ta sifa da aiki. Babu wani masani da ya taba da’awar danganta mutum da dorinar ruwa da cewa suna da magabata daya don tabbatar da kamannin idonsu. Wadannan da wadansu misalan sun tabbatar da cewa da’awar masanan akan cewa homologue sun tabbatar da cewa rayayyun jinsuna sun taso ne daga magabata daya » babu tushen kimiyya a ciki.

Mammal Twins That Defy Homology
Two Unrelated Extinct Mammals With Giant Teeth

Another example of extraordinary resemblance between placental and marsupial mammal "twins," is that between the extinct mammals Smilodon (1) and Thylacosmilus (2), both predators with enormous front teeth.

The great degree of resemblance between the skull and teeth structures of these two mammals, between which no evolutionary relationship can be established, overturns the homological view that similar structures are evidence in favour of evolution.

smilodon, thylacosmilus
Tasmanian Wolf and Its North American Counterpart

The presence of "twin" species between marsupial and placental mammals deals a serious blow to the claim of homology. For example, the marsupial Tasmanian wolf and the placental wolf found in North America resemble each other to an extraordinary degree.

On the Right can be seen the skulls of these two highly similar animals. Such a close resemblance between the two, which cannot be suggested to have any "evolutionary relationship", completely invalidates the claim of homology

tazmanya kurdu

1. North American wolf skull

2. Tasmanian wolf skull

kuzey amerikakurdu, tazmanya kurdu

A hakika, gabobin homologue yakamata su zama babbar tozarta ga masanan. Shahararren masanin juyin halitta Frank Salisbury yayi ikirari a zancensa da yayi akan yadda jinsuna mabanbanta suka samu kama ta ido :

Koda wani abu hadadde kamar ido ya bayyana sau da yawa, misali, a jikin squid, vertabrate da arthropod. Babu dadin ji a nemo asalin wadannan, amma tunanin samar da wadannan sau da yawa a tsarin tunanin ka’idar zamani yana dagula kai.163

insan gözü, renkli göz ahtapot gözü, deniz canlıları

In terms of structure, the eyes of humans and octopuses are very much alike. However, the fact that the two species have similar organs doesn’t imply that they evolved from a common ancestor. Not even evolutionists try to account for the similarity of the eyes of the octopus and man by positing a common ancestor.

Akwai halittu da yawa wadanda, duk da irin kamanni na zahiri da suke dashi, basu bada kafar wata da’awa ta juyin halitta ba. Wasu mayawaitan nau’ukan dabbobi masu shayarwa guda biyu, placentals da marsupials, babban misali ne. Masanan sun yarda wadannan kungiyoyi biyu daga farkon tafiya daya ne ya fita daga jikin daya sai ya bunkasa shi kadai kuma yake zaman kansa. Bayan haka, akwai halittu da dama masu sifa iri daya a zahiri tsakaninsu, wadanda ake ganin dadaddu ne. Masanan halitta Dean Kenyon da Percival Davis sun fadi wadannan kalmomi masu zuwa :

“kamar yadda ka’idar Darwin ta fada, tsarin karkanda, mage, zomo ground hogs, anteaters, moles, da bera duk sun samu sau biyu : na farko a nau’in placental sannan kuma, ta daya bangaren a marsupial. wannan ya haifar da da’awar cewa tarwatsatsetse, yanayin maye gurbi da zabin yanayi sun debi kama ta hanyoyi da yawa akan kwayoyi daban-daban. ”164

wannan kamance, wanda masanan basu yarda da misalan a matsayin “homology” ba, na nuna cewa gabbai masu kama daya ba zasu zama shaida ga wannan rubutaccen lamari ba.

Tsarin Halitta da Haihuwa Suna da Alaka da Homology

körelmiş organlar, göz

Farfesa MichaelDenton: “Juyin Halitta Ka’ida ce dake cikin Rikici”

Idan aka dauki da’awar dake magana akan “Homology” da kyau, za’a ga cewa (homologue) gabbai a halittu daban-daban suma za’a hada su da makamantan (homologue) shiryayyun DNA. Bayan haka, makamantan kwayoyin halitta a cikin DNA daga halittu daban-daban suna hulda da gabbai mabanbanta.

Michael Denton, Farfesan kasar Australia a Fannin Biochemistry, ya bayyana a littafinsa Evolution: A Theory in crisis fassarar masana akan homology dangane da tsarin halitta: “Sifofin homology kuma ilmin homology zai iya fadada ya shiga cikin ilmin embryology”.165

Shahararren misali akan wannan gaba shine “five finger homology” wanda aka nakalto a kusan dukkanin litattafan masana Juyin halitta. Tetrapods, wato halittu masu kasusuwan baya dake raye aban kasa, suna da yatsu biyar a kafar gaba data baya. Koda yake ba koda yaushe ne wadannan suke da yatsu biyar ba kamar yadda muka sansu, akan dauke su a matsayin Pentadactyl saboda sifar kasusuwan bayansu. Kafafun gaba da bayan kwado, kadangare, zomo da biri duk haka suke. Tsarin kasusuwan tsuntsaye da jemagu suma suna da irin wannan tsari.

Masanan sunyi da’awar cewa duk wadannan halittu sun faro ne daga magabata daya, kuma an bayyana wannan batu a kusan dukkanin littattafai a fannin halittu gaba dayan karni na 20 a matsayin waa kakkarfar shaida ga Juyin halitta. An gano cewa tsarin gaba-gabar pentadactyl dake halittu daban-daban suna shan gudanarwa ne daga wata kwayar Halittar jini ta daban. Masanin Juyin halitta William Fix yayi bayani dalla-dalla akan rushewar ka’idar Juyin halitta ta haka:

Tsofaffin litattafai akan Juyin halitta sunyi ta fadar batun homology, da nuna kamannin dake tsakanin gaba-gabar dake jikin Dabbobi daban-daban. Saboda haka tsarin gaba-gabar “pentadactyl” ana samunsa ne a daidai gabar hamatar mutum, fuka-fukin tsuntsu, da jerin kayoyin dake fuskar babban kifi Whale, kuma ance wannan shine yake nuna asalinsu daya ne. Yanzu idan wadannan sifofin aka sanya su izuwa tsarin halitta daya, lokaci bayan lokaci suka rika canzawa sakamakon maye gurbi kuma zabin yanayi ya karba, ka’idar zata yi ma’ana. Abin takaici ba haka al’amarin yake ba. Gabobin homology an sansu yanzu da samar da tsarin kwayoyin halittu daban-daban a jikin jinsuna mabanbanta. Tsarin fahimtar homology dangane da halitta iri daya da fitowa daga magabata daya ya riga ya karye…166

Wani batun shine wajen tabbatar da Juyin Halittar kamance, tsarin bunkasar mahaifa (matakin dake cikin kwai ko mahaifar uwa) daga jinsuna masu kama ko gabbai lallai ne su sabawa juna. A hakika, tsarin mahaifar wadannan ya sha bamban dana sauran rayayyun jinsuna.

A karshe, zamu iya cewa bincike akan tsarin halitta da mahaifa ya tabbatar da cewa sifar kamancen da Darwin ya fassara a matsayin “shaida ga Juyin Halittar rayayyun halittu daga magabata daya” ba zai taba zama wata shaida ba. Don haka, za’a iya cewa kimiyya ta tabbatar da karyar zantuttukan Darwin lokaci bayan lokaci.

Rashin Ingancin Da’awar Kwayoyin Halitta Daga Homology

Rashin ingancin gabatarwar masana Juyin halitta dangane da homology a matsayin shaida ga juyim halitta ba kawai ya tsaya akan batun gabobi bane amma har akan matakin curin kwayoyin. masanan sunce jerin lissafin DNA ko jerin sunadaran gina jikin halittu daban-daban sunyi kama kuma wannan kama shaida ce dake nuna cewar rayayyun jinsunan halittu sun samo asali daga magabata daya ko daga kowannensu.

A gaskiya, sakamakon kamanta su bai yi tasiri ga ka’idar Juyin halitta ba. Akwai manyan bambancin sifa tsakanin halittu wadanda suke da alaka da kuma kama. Misali, sifar Cytochrome – c, daya daga cikin sunadarai muhimmai ga shekar iska, yana da bambanci a halittu daban-daban. A sakamakon wani bincike da aka gabatar akan haka, bambancin dake tsakanin halittu masu rarrafe ya dara bambancin dake tsakanin tsunstu da kifi ko kifi da dabba mai shayarwa. Wani nazarin ya nuna cewa bambancin kwayoyin halittu dake bayyana a kwayoyin cuta ko masu kare su, masu kama sun dara bambancin dake tsakanin Dabbobi masu shayarwa da kwari.167 Irin wadannan kamance an yi sune a dalilin bangarori kamarsu haemoglobin, myoglobin, hormones da genes kuma an gabatar da bayanai akansu.168

Akan wadannan da wasu binciken, Dr. Michael Denton yati tsokaci da cewa:

Kowane jinsi a matakin kwayoyin daya ne, kuma a kebe ba tare da haduwa a tsakiya ba. Saboda haka, curin kwayoyin, kamar burbusai, sun kasa samar da tsaka-tsakinsu da tuni Juyin halitta suke jira ba…A matakin kwayoyin halitta, babu gabar halitta da take “magabaciya” ko “dadaddiya” idan an kwatantasu da ‘yan uwansu…Akwai shakku kadan na cewa da ace wannan shaida ta kwayoyin ta fito karni guda daya wuce…da batun kwayoyin Juyin halitta ma ba’a yarda da ita ba.169

A 1990, binciken da aka yi a cikin jerin kwayoyin halittar rayayyun halittu ya kara dagula ka’idar juyin halitta akan wannan batu. A wadannan gwaje-gwajen ne, a maimakon kwatancen farko da aka yi jerin sunadaran gina jiki ne, “ribosomal RNA” (rRNA) aka kwatanta, daga karshe aka tabbatar da “bishiryar juyin halitta”. Haka kuma, masanan basu ji dadin sakamakon ba. Kamar yadda masanin Halitta na kasar France Herve Phillipe da Patrick Forterre, “tare da samuwar jerin mai yawa, sakamakon ya nuna cewa mafi yawancin sunadaran phylogenies sun sabawa jnansu kamar ya kasance a bishiyar rRNA”.170

Bayan kwatancen rRNA, jerin kwayoyin DNA a jikin rayayyun halittu suma an kwatantasu amma sakamakon ya sabawa “bishiyar rayuwa” wadda juyin halitta ya tsara. Masanan kwayoyin halitta James Lake, Ravi Jain da Maria Rivera sun bada haske akan wannan a wata kasida ta 1999:

“Masana kimiyya sun fara nazarin kwayoyin halittu daban-daban kuma sun gano cewar alakarsu da juna ta sabawa bishiyar juyin Halittar rayuwa data samu daga rRNA kadai.”171

Tsakanin kwatancen sunadaran, ko na rRNA ko kwayoyin babu wanda yake tabbatar da ka’idar juyin halitta. Carl Woose, ya karyata masana Halittar daga Jami’ar IIIinois, ga abinda yace:

Babu wani tabbataccen tsarin kwayoyin da ya samu daga daidaikun sunadaran gina jikin da izuwa yanzu aka samara. Karyewar tsarin halittun Dabbobi zai iya ganuwa a ko’ina a fadaddiyar bishiya, tun daga saiwoyinta har izuwa manyan rassanta ciki da waje don samara da kanana daga cikinsu.”172

Hujjar cewa sakamakon curin kwayoyin wanda aka kwatanta basa goyon baya, amma suna yakar ka’idar juyin halitta, an rubuta hakan a cikin kasida mai suna “Is it Time to uproot the tree of life?” da aka buga a mujallar Science a 1999. Wannan kasidar da Elizabeth Pennisi ta rubuta tace kwatancen mabiya Kimiyyar Darwin suka yi akan halittu domin su kara haske akan “bishiyar rayuwa” a hakika ya bada sakamako wanda ya saba, kuma yace “sababbin bayanai na cure a hotunan juyin halitta”.

Shekarar data wuce, masana Halittar da suke neman sababbin jerin kwayoyin daga tulin kananan kwayoyin sunyi zaton cewa wadannan bayanai zasu taimaka wajen yarda da Asalin Tarihin rayuwa. Amma abinda suka gain ya dugunzuma su. Kwatancen da suka gabatar akan kwayoyin genomes ba wai kawai yaki tantance hotunan yadda Asalin sassan suka faro ba, a’a sun jirkita sakamakon ne. Kuma yanzu, da Karin jerin guda takwas da ake dasu a hannu, lamarin ya dada rikitarwa…Yawancin masanan sunyi zaton zasu ga farkon daulolin rayuwa uku…Yayin da cikakken jerin DNA ya bude hanyar gwada sauran kwayoyin halitta, masu bincike sunyi tsammanin zasu kara akan wannan uku cikin sauki. Amma “babu abinda zai iya karuwa akan gaskiya”, inji Claire Fraser, shugaban Institute for Genomic Research (TIGR) a Rockville, Maryland. Sakamakon haka, gwadawar da aka yi ta haifar da wasu sassan bishiyar rayuwa wadda ta bambanta daga rRNA kuma take tufka dawarwara...173

Ana yawaita bincike ne, homology na dada rushewa. Kwatancen da sunadarai, rRNA da kwayoyin halitta suka yi sun nuna cewa halittun da ake dauka suna da kusanci da juna ta hanyar ka’idar juyin halitta, a hakikani basu da wata alaka. A 1996 binciken da aka yi tare da amfani da jerin kwayoyin sunadarai 88 na zomaye tare da Dabbobi kamar mutum a maimakon dabba mai karfin hakori; Nazarin 1998 dangane da sunadarai 12 da aka sanya shanu kusa da Whales maimakon dawakai. Masanin kwayoyin halitta Johnathan Wells ya tattare bayanan:

Karyewar alakar dake tattare da kwayoyin mabanbanta, da bishiyar data haifar da bayanan wasu kwayoyin, yanzu ta jefa kwayoyin phylogeny cikin rikici.174

Tarihin Jujjuyawar Mahaifa

körelmiş organlar, göz

Haeckel dan juyin halitta ne wanda yafi Darwin ma tsauri ta bangarori da dama Saboda haka ne bai yi kasa a gwiwa ba wajen hargitsa bayanan kimiyya ya kuma yayi jabun zane-zane.

Abinda aka saba kira “recapitulation theory” tuni an cire shi daga daga litattafan kimiyya amma har yanzu wasu masana a rubuce-rubucensu suna gabatar da shi a matsayin wata kimiyyar gaske. Kalmar “recapitulation” tana tafiya ne da ma’anar “yanayin halitta na juya phylogeny” wanda masanin juyin halitta Ernest Haeckel ya gabatar a karshen karni na 19.

Wannan ka’ida da Haeckal ya gabatar da rayayyun jinjirin mahaifa ya fuskanci yanayin juyin halitta. Ya karkasa cewa yayin girmansa a cikin mahaifar uwa, jinjirin na fara fitowa ne da sifar kifi, daga nan ya koma halitta mai kasusuwan baya a karshe ya zama mutum.

Tun daga wannan lokacin aka gabatar da cewa wannan ka’ida rudu ne kawai. Yanzu dai an sani cewar “nannadar dake jikin tsokar jinjirin wadda take bayyana a lokacin da yake tasawa kewayen faifan kunne ne, parathyroid da thymus. Bangaren mahaifar dake kama da “kwaikwaye” an gano cewa wasu kwayoyin ne da suke samara da jinni ga jariri. Bangaren da aka ce “jela” ce inji Haeckel da mabiyansa itama an gano cewa kasusuwan baya ne, wanda yayi kama da jela ne kafin kafafuwa su fito.

Wadannan hujjoji ne da aka sansu a duniyar kimiyya kuma har ma masana juyin Halittar sun yarda dasu. George Gaylord Simpson, daya daga cikin wadanda suka kafa Cigaban- Darwiniyanci, ya rubuta cewa:

Haeckel’s Fraudulent Drawings
köpek, varyasyon

Jinjirin Dake Mahaifa Bashi da Wata Fassara ta Nannada

Yadda aka fassara gado daga magabata, an sake fassara nannada. An nuna cewa dan tayin dake mahaifa baya nuna tarihin juyin Halittar mutum.

(Francis Hitching, The Neck of the Giraffe: Where Darwin Went Wrong, p. 205)

Haeckal yayi kuskuren fahimtar ilmin juyin Halitta. Yanzu an tabbatar da cewa Ontogeny baya maimaita phylogeny. 175

A wata kasida da aka buga a mujallar American Scientist mun karanta:

Tabbas ka’idar kwayoyin halitta matacciya ce kamar kusar da aka kafa ta jikin kofa. A karshe an gano daga litattafai shekaru hamsin. A matsayin wata muhimmiyar mas’ala da aka dade da ita a karni na 20…176

Wani abu mai ban sha’awa a cikin “recapitulation” shine Ernest Haeckal da kansa, shi da kansa ya dawo ya karyata zane-zanensa don kawai ya tallafawa ka’idar da yake son taci gaba. Jabun zane-zanen da Haeckal yayi ya nuna cewa kifi da tayin mahaifar mutum sunyi kama da juna. Lokacin da aka kure shi, abinda yayi kokari ya fada don yak are kansa shine wai sauran masana kimiyyar suma sun tafka irin wannan ta’asar:

Bayan shawo kai da ikirari na akan wannan “jabu” zan zargi kaina da rusa abinda nayi, idan da zan samu kaina tare da wasu a cikin fursunoni daga cikinsu akwai amintattun manyan masana halitta da masu lura. Mafi yawancin zane-zanen dake cikin litattafan ilmin halitta, kasidu da mujallu duk suma sun cancanci a zarge su da cewa “jabu” ne, domin dukkaninsu babu na gaskiya, zane su akai, aka tsara su kuma aka sifanta su. 177

Saboda haka, akwai daruruwan wadanda za’a zarga tare dani, daga cikinsu akwai amintattun masana halitta da masu lura” wadanda jawabinsu cike suke da rudu, hargitsi, da jabu. Saboda duk so suke su zama zakarun da zasu daga martabar ka’idar juyin halitta duk da cewa babu shaidun kimiyya dake tallafa mata.

 

Footnotes

150 Loren C. Eiseley, The Immense Journey, Vintage Books, 1958, sh. 186.

151 Charles Darwin, The Origin of Species: A Facsimile of the First Edition, Harvard University Press, 1964, sh. 184.

152 Norman Macbeth, Darwin Retried: An Appeal to Reason, Harvard Common Press, New York: 1971, sh. 33.

153 Ibid, sh. 36.

154 Loren Eiseley, The Immense Journey, Vintage Books, 1958. sh. 227.

155Dr. Lee Spetner, "Lee Spetner/Edward Max Dialogue: Continuing an exchange with Dr. Edward E.Max”,2001,http://www.trueorigin.org/spetner2.asp

156 Ibid.

157 Ibid.

158 Francisco J. Ayala, "The Mechanisms of Evolution", Scientific American, Vol. 239, September 1978, sh. 64.

159 Dr. Lee Spetner, "Lee Spetner/Edward Max Dialogue: Continuing an exchange with Dr. Edward E. Max", 2001, http://www.trueorigin.org/spetner2.asp

160 S. R. Scadding, "Do 'Vestigial Organs' Provide Evidence for Evolution?", Evolutionary Theory, Vol 5, May 1981, sh. 173.

161 The Merck Manual of Medical Information, Home edition, New Jersey: Merck & Co., Inc. The Merck Publishing Group, Rahway, 1997.

162 H. Enoch, Creation and Evolution, New York: 1966, sh. 18-19.

163 Frank Salisbury, "Doubts About the Modern Synthetic Theory of Evolution", American Biology Teacher, September 1971, sh. 338.

164 Dean Kenyon & Percival Davis, Of Pandas and People: The Central Question of Biological Origins (Dallas: Haughton Publishing, 1993), sh. 33

165 Michael Denton, Evolution: A Theory in Crisis. London, Burnett Books, 1985, sh. 145.

166 Fix, William, The Bone Peddlers: Selling Evolution (New York: Macmillan Publishing Co., 1984), sh. 189

167 W. R. Bird, The Origin of Species Revisited, Thomas Nelson Co., Nashville: 1991, sh. 98-99; Percival Davis, Dean Kenyon, Of Pandas and People, Haughton Publishing Co., 1990, sh. 35-38.

168 W. R. Bird, The Origin of Species Revisited, sh. 98-99, 199-202.

169 Michael Denton. Evolution: A Theory in Crisis. London: Burnett Books, 1985, sh. 290-91.

170 Hervé Philippe and Patrick Forterre, "The Rooting of the Universal Tree of Life is Not Reliable", Journal of Molecular Evolution, vol 49, 1999, sh. 510

171 James Lake, Ravi Jain ve Maria Rivera, "Mix and Match in the Tree of Life", Science, vol. 283, 1999, sh. 2027

172 Carl Woese, "The Universel Ancestor", Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA, 95, (1998) sh. 6854

173 Ibid.

174 Jonathan Wells, Icons of Evolution, Regnery Publishing, 2000, sh. 51

175 G. G. Simpson, W. Beck, An Introduction to Biology, New York, Harcourt Brace and World, 1965, p. 241.

176 Keith S. Thompson, "Ontogeny and Phylogeny Recapitulated", American Scientist, Vol 76, May/June 1988, sh. 273.

177 Francis Hitching, The Neck of the Giraffe: Where Darwin Went Wrong, New York: Ticknor and Fields 1982, sh. 204.

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