Evolution Hoax

Rudun Juyin Halitta

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Babi Na 14 -Ka’idar Juyin Halitta Sanadiyyar Jari-Hujja

Bayanan da muka gabatar cikin wannan littafi ya nuna mana cewar ka’idar juyin halitta bashi da tushe a kimiyance, kuma sabanin haka, da’awar juyin halitta taci karo da binciken kimiyya. A wadansu kalmomin, ikon dake rike da juyin halitta ba kimiyya bane. Wasu “masana kimiyya” na iya tsayuwa don kare martabar juyin halitta, amma dole ka samu akwai wani wakilci yana aiki a gefe guda. Wakilin kuwa shine falsafar jari-hujja.

Falsafar jari-hujja na daya daga cikin tsofaffin akidu a tarihi. Muhimmiyar sifarta itace mayar de hankalinta akan kwayar halitta. Kamar yadda falsafar tace, kwayar halitta bata da karshe kuma duk abinda ya wanzu daga curin kwayar halitta ne. wannan hanya ce da take kaiwa ga kin yarda d mahalicci. Jari-hujja ya dade yana yakar koyarwar addini kowane iri ne indai yana shiryarwa izuwa imani da Allah.

kormozom, dna

Saboda haka, abin tambaya shine guda daya akan shin ko ra’ayin jari – hujja akwai gaskiya ciki. Hanyar jarraba falsafanci gaskiya ne ko karya shine bincike akan da’awoyin falsafancin, wadanda suka danganci kimiyya ayi amfani da hanyoyin kimiyya. Misali, bafalsafan karni na 10 yana iya da’awar cewa akwai wata kasaitacciyar bishiya akan Wata kuma duk halittu masu rai suna girma ne a jikin rassan wannan kasaitacciyar bishiya mai ‘ya’yan itatuwa daga nan su fado cikin duniya. Wadansu kan nemo wannan falsafanci suji ya kayatar dasu kuma su yarda. Amma a karni na 20, a lokacin da mutane suka kai zasu iya tafiya a duniyar wata, ba zai yiwu ka gabatar da irin wannan falsafancin ba. Ko bishiyar ta wanzu ko a’a za’a iya tabbatarwa a kimiyance wato, ta hanyar dubawa da bincikawa.

Haka kuma zamu iya ganowa ta hanyar kimiyya da’awar ‘yan jari-hujja: wato, cewar kwayar halitta ta wanzu kuma zata iya shirya kanta ba tare da kulawar mahalicci ba da zai sanya rayuwa ta fara. Yayin da muka yi haka, muna ganin jari-hujja ya rushe, saboda haka suka ce kwayar halitta ta wanzu ba zata yi karshe ba, aka jefasu cikin ka’idar (Big Bang Theory) wadda ta nuna cewa an halicci sararin duniya ne daga babu. Da’awar kwayar halitta ta shirya kanta kuma ta samar da rayuwa itace da’awar de muke kira “ka idar juyin halitta” – wadda wannan littafi yayi ta nazari akai da nuna tabbatar rushewarta.

Bayan haka, idan dai mutum yayi nufin imani da jari-hujja kuma ya sanya kansa gaba ga falsafar jari-hujja kafin komai, to kuwa bai yi aiki da wannan ba. Idan dai shi “na farko dan jari-hujja ne kuma masanin kimiyya”, ba zai watsi da jari-hujja ba yayin da yaga cewa juyin halitta yana kushe da kimiyya. Sabanin haka, yana yin yunkuri da ceto jari-hujja ta hanyar tallafawa juyin halitta ta kowane hali. Wannan shine hakikanin halin da masana juyin halitta suka samu kansu a yayin kare ka’idar juyin halitta.

Abinda yake bada sha’awa shine, suna ta yin ikirari da kansu akan wannan hujja lokaci-bayan-lokaci. Sharararren masanin halitta kuma fitaccen masanin juyin halitta, Richard C. Lewontin daga jami’ar Harvard, yayi ikirari cewa shi “na farko dan jari-hujja ne kuma masanin kimiyya ne” ta wadannan kalmomi:

Ba wai hanyoyi da fannonin kimiyya ne suka tilasta mana yarda da bayanan jari-hujja a duniya ba, sabanin haka, ana cewar tsarin da muka dogara dashi ne ya tilasta mana barin tafarkin jari-hujja don a kirkiri hanyar bincike da wani tsarin da zai samar da bayanan komai yawan su, komai yawan tsara tafarkin. Saboda haka jari-hujja fa babu makawa, kuma ba zamu kyale tafarkin addini a bakin kofa ba. 178

Darwiniyanci da Jari-Hujja
leon trotsky,komünizm charles darwin, evrim teorisi karl marks, materyalizm

Leon Trotsky

Charles Darwin

Karl Marks

Dalilin da yasa ake ta kokarin kare ka’idar Darwin duk da sukar data sha a kimiyanci shine kusanci ne kud-da-kud dake tsakann ka’idar da jari-hujja. Dariwini ya dauki falsafancin jari-hujja ya snya shi a kimiyyar yanayin halitta kuma ya cizata da yada wannan falsafanci, akidar Marxist itace kan gaba a tafarkin, taja ragamar kare Darwiniyanca ta kowane irin hali.

Daga daga cikin shahararrun masanan zamaninmu akan ka’idar juyin halitta, masani alkan ilmin halitta Douglas Futuyma, ya rabuta cewa: “Tare da ka’idar tarihi ta jari-hujjar marx… ka’idar juyin halittar Darwin itace ta share fagen samun gindin zaman Jari-hujja”. Wannan itace hujja mabayyaniya da yasa ka’idar juyin halitta take da muhimmanci a wurin masu kare ta. 1

Wani shahararren masanin shima, mai binciken burbushin halitta Stephen J. Gould yace: “Darwin yayi amfani da wani tsararren falsafancin jari-hujja a bayaninsa akan yanayi” 2 Leonin Trostky, daya dasa cikin wadanda suka haifar da juyin juya halin kwaminisancin Rasha tare da Lenin, yayi tsokaci kamar haka: “Ganowar da Darwin yayi shine mafi girman nasara a fannin gabban kwayoyin halitta gaba daya”. 3 Koda yake kimiyya ta nuna cewa Darwiniyanci ba nasara bace ga jari-hujja ba amma wata alama ce ta rushe falsafancinsa.

1. Douglas Futuyma, Evolutionary Biology, 2.b., Sunderland, MA: Sinauer, 1986, p. 3.
2. Alan Woods, Ted Grant, "Marxism and Darwinism", Reason in Revolt: Marxism and Modern Science, London:1993.
3. Alan Woods, Ted Grant. "Marxism and Darwinism", London: 1993.

Kalmar “priori” wato tunani da Lewontin yayi amfani da ita anan tana da muhimmanci. Wannan kalmar falsafanci tana nufin wani tunanin da ba ‘a kafa shi akan ilmin bincike ba. Tunani shine “a priori” idan muka dauke daidai ne kuma muka dauke shi ya zama haka idan babu wani bayani akan gyaran wannan tunani. Kamar yadda Lewontin ya fito kiri-kiri yace, jari-hujja “tunani ne” aka bawa masana juyin halitta kuma suka yi kokari wajen cusa shi a kimiyya. Tunda jari-hujja yana tsananta kin yarda da wanzuwar mahalicci, sai suke kama abinda ya rage a hannunsu shine ka’idar juyin halitta. Bai dame su ba cewar juyin halitta karyace da hujjojin kimiyya suka bankada; domin wadannan masanan sun yarda cewa “tunani ne” mai kyau.

Wannan rudani shi yaja masanan suka yi imani cewa “tarwatsatstsen kwayoyin halitta ya hada kansa” wanda ba wai sabawa kimiyya kadai yayi ba har ma da hankali. Farfesan kimiyyar gwaje-gwajen jami’ar New York kuma kwararre akan jigidar halittar DNA Robert Shapiro, kamar yadda muka fada a can baya, yayi bayani akan imani da masanan suka yi da kuma akidar jari-hujjar dake kwance a karkashi kamar haka:

Muna bukatar wata akidar juyin halitta wadda zata dauke mu zuwa toshe kafar fitowa daga sassa ukun gwaurayen sunadarai zuwa sakamakon da zai fara fitowa. Wannan tsari fa har yanzu ba ‘ayi bayani cikakke akansa ba ko a nuna shi a aikace, amma zatonsa kadai ake, da bashi sunaye kamar juyawar sunadarai da tafarkin tsara kwayoyin halitta. Ana daukar wanzuwar tsarin da sako-sako a falsafar harshen jari-hujja, kamar yadda aka dora asalinsa akan rayuwa daga bakin Alexandar Oparin. 179

Farfagandar juyin halitta, wadda muke yawan gani a manyan kafofin watsa labaran yammacin duniya da kuma shahararrun “karbabbun” mujallun kimiyya, sakamako ne na irin wannan akida. Tunda aka dauki juyin halitta abu ne babu makawa, sai ya zama wani ma ‘auni da masanan suke auna ilmin kimiyya.

Akwai masana kimiyya da yawa wadanda ake tilasta musu kare wannan ka’ida ko ake hana su fadin wata kalma dake sukarta don su kare martabarta. Malamai masu koyarwa a kasashen turai an tursasasu sanya rubuce – rubucensu a irin wadannan mujallun kimiyyar mutukar suna son a basu mukamin “Farfesa”. Dukkanin mujallun da ake rubutu akan halitta kuma basa kyale duk wani rubutu dake sukar juyin halitta ya fito a mujallun. Saboda haka duk wani masani akan halitta dole ne ya tafiyar da karatunsa akan mamayar wannan akida. Su kansu wani bangare ne na tsarin dake danganta izuwa juyin halitta a matsayin akidar data zama babu makawa, wanda shine dalilin da yasa suke makauniyar kareta ta hanyar “mawuyaciyar haduwa” wadda muke yin nazarinta a cikin littafinnan.

Ikirarin ‘Yan Jari hujja

sitokrom-c, protein

Cytochrome-C

Massanin halittun Jamus Hoimar Von Dithfurt, shahararren dai juyin halitta, kyakkyawan miseli ne akan kar ke tarciyar fahimtar jari-hujja. Bayan Dithfurt ya. na zahirin halitta. A daidai wannan gate ne, bayyane komai ta hanyar ka’idijin yanayin halitta, wato, ta hanyar kicibis, alama ce dake cewa babu wata hanyar da zasu iya kubuta. Saboda, babu wata hanya illa yande da tafarkin kicibis? 180

Haka yake, kamar yadda Dithfurt ya fada, tafarkin kimiyyar jari—hujjar da ake dauke ne a matsayin shi zai fassara rayuwa tarede kin yarde “shaidar wanzuwar mehalicei”, wato halitta. Idan har ake amince de wannan, ta kuwa abinde yafi komai rashi yiwuwa azzalumar tabbata cikin sauki: Abu ne mai sauki gano misalan wannan azzalumar akida a kusan dukkanin rubuce – rubucen masana juyin halitta. Farfese Ali Demirsoy, sananne mai yada ka’idar juyin halitta a kasar Turkey, yana daya daga cikinsu. Kamar yadda muka nuna a shafukan da suka gabata, Demirsoy ya fada cewa: Yiwuwar kicibis din tsarin sunadarin Cythochrome – C, wani muhimmin sunadarin gina rayuwa, “abu ne mai kamar yiwuwa idan har yana yiwuwa biri ya rubuta tarihin dan Adam akan na’urar rubutu ba tare da yin kuskure ba.” 181

Babu shakka cewa yarda da yiwuwar haka kamar sabawa ka’idojin tunani da hankali ne. Koda kalma daya ce rubuce a shafin takarda kasan cewar wani ne ya rabuta. Idan mutum ya dubi littafin tarihin duniya, zai tabbatar masa da cewa lallai akwai marubucinsa. Babu wani mutum mai lafiyayyen tunani da zai yarda da cewa kalmomin dake cikin wannan littafi sun samu kansu a ciki “kwatsam”.

Haka kuma, abin sha’awa ganin cewa “masanin kimiyyar juyin halitta” Farfesa Ali Demirsoy ya yarda da irin wadannan shirmen:

A hakika, yiwuwar samun Cytochrome – C kamar samun babu ne. Ma’ana, idan rayuwa tana bukatar wannan tsari, ana iya cewa akwai yiwuwar samuwarsa sau daya a fadin duniya. Idan ba haka ba, to wasu tarin zahirin iko sama da fassararmu ya aiwatar da samuwarsa. Yarda da wannan magana ta biyu ba dai dai bane a kimiyya. Dole ne mu kalli magana ta farko. 182

Demirsoy ya cigaba da cewa ya yarda da rashin yiwuwa a tsari “kin yarda da tarin zahirin iko”, ma’ana, don kada su yarda da halittar da Ubangiji yayi. Ya fito cewa wannan hanya bata da wata alaka komai kan kantarta da kimiyya. Babu mamaki, yayin da Demirsoy ya sake kawo wata gabar wato asalin mitochondria a cikin tantanin halitta, ya yarda a fita da bayanin akan kicibis dinsa koda yake “ya sabawa ilmin kimiyya”.

Babbar matsala itace mitochondria te samu wannan sifa, domin samun wannan. Sifa kwatsam koda kuwa daga daya ne, ana bukatar yiwuwarsa mafi kololuwa wadda ba zata iya fassaruwa ba… sunadaran da suka samarda numfasawa da yin aiki a matsayin mai aika sako daga kowane bangare na sashen shine yake tafiyar da jikin. Kowace kwayar halitta tana dauke da wannan sunadari dukkansa, idan ba haka ba to bashi da wani amfani. Anan, duk da cewa ya sabawa tsarin ilmin halitta, don a kubuta daga bayani na rudani ko jita – jita, dole ne mu yarda, koda yake a fili yake, cewa dole mafitar sunadarai sun wanzu a jikin tantanin halittta kafin tantanin ya fara haduwa da iskar oxygen. 183

Abinda zamu iya cirowa daga cikin wannan jawabi shine juyin halitta ka’ida ce wadda ta gangaro ta cikin binciken kimiyya. Sabanin haka, tsari da salon wannan ka’ida ta fito ne daga shirin falsafar jari-hujja. Daga nan ne kuma ta rikide ta zama addini ko ince rudani maimakon kwararan hujjojin kimiyya. Haka kuma, zamu iya gani daga rubuce – rubucen masana juyin halitta cewa dukkanin wannan yunkuri nasu yana da “manufa”. Kuma manufarsa ta shafe duk imani ne akan cewa duk rayayyun halittu Allah ne mahaliccinsu.

Masanan sun fassara manufar da cewa “kimiyya ce”. Haka kuma, abinde suke nunawa ba kimiyya bace falsafar jari-hujja ce. Jari-hujja ya karyata duk wani abu “sabanin” kwayoyin halitta (ko wani abu da ba za’a iya gani ba). Kimiyya da kanta bata karbi wannan zance na yaudara ba. Kimiyya tana nufin bankada yanayi don samar da sakamko daga binciken da mutum yayi. Idan sakamakon binciken ya nuna cewa halittar yanayi akayi, to dole ne kimiyya ta yarda. Aikin kimiyyar gaskiya kenan; ba wai kare labaran da ba zasu taba yiwuwa ba ta daukar kirkirarrun shirmen jari – hujjar karni na 19

Jari-Hujja, Addinin Karya dana Gaskiya

mitokondri, enerji kaynağı

Mitochondria

Tuni, munyi nazari akan yada mutane suka sadaukar da lokacinsu akan falsafar jari-hujja suka yi watsi da kimiyya, yadda aka yaudari mutane kawai saboda bin tatsuniyoyin masana juyin halitta wadanda suke bi a makance, da kuma yadda suke yaye musu al’amura na zahiri. Ana cewa, dole ne mu amsa cewa wadannan ‘yan jari-hujja sun taka “muhimmiyar rawa”, koda yake bada nufi ba

Suna yada wannan “aiki”, ta yadda suke gasgata tafarkinsu na karya cike da shirka, da fito da duk wani rashin hankali da hargitsatstsun al’adu da karkataccen tunanin da ake haska su da sunan Musulunci. Laifukan wadannan maguzawan jari-hujja sun taimaka wajen bankado addinin karya wanda bashi da wata alaka da kur’ani ko musulunci, kuma ya dogara ne akan jita-jita, camfi da za’a kama. Saboda haka, maganganun duka wadanda suke cike da karairayi, rashin fasahar addinin karya wanda tsarar mutanen suke ta karewa da sunan Musulunci ba tare da dogaro da kwararan shaidu ba asirinsu ya tonu.

Saboda haka, ‘yan jari-hujja sun taimaki mutane da yawa sun fahimci irin kullin da aka yi kuma ta karfafa musu gwiwa akan su nemi tushen addinin gaskiya ta hanayar kai su ga riko da Alkur’ani. Koda yake ba da niyya ba, suke bin umarnin Ubangiji kuma suke bautawa addininsa. Haka kuma, sun fadi dukkan hanyoyi saukaka wadanda suke gabatar da adinin karya da suke kirkira da sunan addinin Allah kuma suke nuna shi a Musulunci kuma suna taimakawa wajen raunana tafarkin da yake barazana ga al’umma baki daya.

Saboda haka, sun dage akan alakanta al’amarin tare da kaddara, sai ya zamanto wani abu ne wanda Ubangiji ya shimfida akan riko da addininsa na gaskiya ta la’antar makiya addini, wadanda hadin kansu ya tabbata. An zayyana al’adar Ubangiji a cikin Alkur’ani kamar haka;

Kuma ba domin tunkudewar Allah ga mutane sashensu da sashe ba, hakika da kasa ta bali. (Suratul Bakara, 251)

A wannan gaba, muna ganin wajibi ne mu bar hofa a bude ga wasu daga cikin masu yada akidar jari-hujja da juyin halitta. Wadannan mutane watakik sun shirya bin tafarkin gaskiya, dukda haka aka kautar dasu ga barin addinin gaskiya, a karkashin sunan addinin musulunci, ake ta kirkirar karya ana dangantasu ga annabi, da labaran jira-jitar da ake dora su akai fun tasowarsu saboda haka basu samu damar gano ainihin gaskiya da kansu ba. Watakila sun karanci addini daga wadanda suke gaba da addini wadanda suke gabatar da addini cike da karya da zantuttukan da Alkur’anin bai zo dasu ba. Muhimmanci da asalin musulunci suna da bambanci kuma sun saba da duk abubuwan da ake koya musu. Saboda wannan ne, muka bada shawarar su samu kur’ani cikin sauri su karanta littafin Allah da zuciya budaddiya, tattara hankali wuri guda don koyon addinin asali daga asali managarci. Idan kuma suna bukatar agaji, zasu iya komawa littattafan marubucin wannan littafi, Harun Yahya, akan ginshikai dake cikin Alkur’ani.

Mutuwar Jari-Hujja

Tsare-tsaren falsafar ka’idar juyin halittar data bijiro, jari-hujjar karni na 19 ya nuna cewar duniya tuni ta wanzu, ba halittar ta aka yi ba, kuma zahirin duniya zai iya bayani akan cakuduwar kwayoyin halitta. Wannan binciken kimiyya na karni na 20 ya rigaya ya rushe wadannan shiriritar.

Zaton da suke yi na cewa duniya dama can ta wanzu tun asalin da aka gano cewa ta samo asali ne daga gagarumar fashewa (wadda ake kira “big bang”) data faru kusan shekaru biliyan 15 da suka shude. Big Bang ya nuna cewa dukkan sunadaran da suka bayyana suka hadu suka samar da duniya daga babu; ta wasu kalmomin, halittarsu aka yi. Daya daga cikin manyan masu yada jari-hujja, bamagujen bafalsafe Anthony Flew yace:

A gaskiya, ikirari abu ne mai kyau ga rai. Zamu iya faraway da ikirarin cewa sai….. ya rungume su (Big Bang). Domin masana falaki suna kokarin samar da hujja a kimiyance…cewa duniya tana da farko.1

Har ila yau Big Bang ta nuna cewa a kowane mataki, duniya na daukar sifa ne daga wata halitta mai kula da haka. Ya fito fili daga ka’idar da take fitowa kafin Big Bang, wadda tafi tsari akan samuwarsa daga fashewarsa. Shahararren masanin ilmin lissafi Paul Davies yayi bayanin wannan hali kamar haka:

Yana da wuya jure yanayin da sifar da duniya take dashi yanzu, wanda yake daukar canji a jerin lambobi, koda yake sun kare…mu’jizar dake juya lambobin da yanayi yake kaiwa da komowa zai zama ya tursasawa shaida akan tsarin taswira.2

Zahirin al’amarin ya sanyawa wani ba Amurke Farfesa akan ilmin taurari, George Greenstein, yace:

Kamar yadda muka yi nazarin shaidun, tunaninmu ya tabbatar da samuwar wasu shamakai na kudira – wanda yake ciki.3

Saboda haka, misalin da ‘yan jari hujja suke cewa za’a iya bayanin rayuwa ta bangaren kai kawon kwayar halitta wanda ya rushe a fuskar binciken kimiyya. Asalin bayanan jinni wanda yake tabbatar da makomar rayayyun halittu zai iya bayani ta hanyar wani sunadari. Daya daga cikin na gaba-gaba a wajen kare ka’idar juyin halitta, George C. Williams, ya yarda da wannan hujja a kasidar da ya rubuta a 1995 yace:

Masana ilmin halitta sun kasa fahimtar cewa suna aiki tare da Karin wasu makarai: cewa bayanai dake cikin kwayoyin halitta…jini tattare yake da bayanai… wannan zuzzurfan bayani ya sanya kwayar halitta da bayani daban – daban, wanda dole a tattauna su daban – daban, kowanne a matsayin yadda yake.4

Wannan hali shaida ce dake tattare da hikima kuma shine yake samar da bayanan jinin. Abu ne mai wuya kwayar halitta ta samar da wannan bayani a karan kanta. Daraktan Cibiyar Lissafi da Fasaha ta kasar Jamus, Farfesa Werner Gitt, yayi tsokaci da cewa:

Dukkanin sakamako yayi nuni da cewa mutum mai tunani yana yin abinda yaso don kansa, tsarawa, da kerawa, abin nema ne. babu wani abu wai shi ka’idar tsarin yanayi, babu wani sanannen tafarki da jerin shirye-shirye wanda zai haifar da bayanai a kwayoyin halitta.5

Duk wadannan hujjojin kimiyya suna nuna cewa duniya da rayayyun halittu mahalicci ne ya halicce su, wanda yake da tabbataccen iko da sani, shine Allah. Akan jari-hujja kuwa, Arthur koestler, daya daga cikin shahararrun masana falsafa a karninmu yace: “ba zata sake yin da’awar zama kimiyyar falsafanci ba”.6

1. Henry Margenau, Roy A. Vargesse. Cosmos, Bios, Theos. La Salle IL: Open Court Publishing, 1992, p. 241

2. Paul Davies. God and the New Physics. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1983, p. 189

3. Hugh Ross. The Creator and the Cosmos. Colorado Springs, CO: Nav-Press, 1993, pp. 114-15

4. George C. Williams. The Third Culture: Beyond the Scientific Revolution, New York, Simon & Schuster, 1995, pp. 42-43

5. Werner Gitt. In the Beginning Was Information. CLV, Bielefeld, Germany, p. 107, 141

6. Arthur Koestler, Janus: A Summing Up, New York, Vintage Books, 1978, p. 250

 

Footnotes

178 Richard Lewontin, "The Demon-Haunted World", The New York Review of Books, January 9, 1997, sh. 28.

179 Robert Shapiro, Origins: A Sceptics Guide to the Creation of Life on Earth. Summit Books, New York: 1986, sh. 207.

180 Hoimar Von Dithfurt, Im Anfang War Der Wasserstoff (Secret Night of the Dinosaurs), Vol 2, sh. 64.

181 Ali Demirsoy, Kalitim ve Evrim (Inheritance and Evolution), Ankara: Meteksan Publishing Co., 1984, sh. 61.

182 Ibid, sh. 61.

183 Ibid, sh. 94.

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