Evolution Hoax

Rudun Juyin Halitta

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CHAPTERS OF THE BOOK

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19 / total: 22

Babi Na 17 - Dalilai Na Halitta

A bangarorin da suka gabata a littafin, munyi nazari akan dalilin da yasa ka’idar juyin halittar rayuwa akai ba, wannan cikakken shirme ne da ya sabawa hujjojin kimiyya. Mun ga cewa kimiyyar zamani ta bayyana hujjoji karfafa ta bangarorin rassan kimiyya kamarsu binciken burbushin halittu, gwaje – gwajen halitta, da ilmin kwayoyin halittu. Hujjoji dai itace dukkanin rayayyun halittun Ubangiji ne ya haliccesu.
Hakika, fahimtar wannan hujja bata bukatar mutum ya tafi neman zurfafan sakamakon da za’a samo a dakin gwaje – gwajen kimiyya ko ma’aunan kasa. Alamun kasaitacciyar hikima suna nan a dukkanin halittar da mutum ya duba. Akwai madaukakiyar fasaha da iya kira a jikin kwaro ko kankanin kifi acan karkashin ruwa wanda dan Adam bai taba kaiwa ba. Wasu halittunma da ko kwakwalwa basu da ita suna wasu ayyukan da dan Adam ba zai iya yinsu ba.

Wannan madaukakiyar hikima, iya kira da zane da shiri wanda ya sha kan dukkan yanayi babu shakka ya tabbatar da samuwar hujja kwakkwara akan wanzuwar kasaitaccen mahalicci wanda yake saman dukkan yanayi, shine Allah. Allah ya samarwa dukkan wata halitta mai rai wata sifa kebantacciya kuma ya nunawa mutane alamun wanzuwarsa wadanda ba zasu kidayu ba.

Kudan Zuma da Zanen Gidan Zuma Mai Ban Mamaki

arı, çiçek

Kudan Zuma na samar da zuma sama da wanda suke bukatar tarawa a sakar zuma. Sifar katangar sakar mai baki shida ta sakr zuma abu ne sananne ga kowa. Shin ka taba yin mamaki ko al’ajabi akan yadda kudan zuma yake yin sakarsa da katanga shida maimakon takwas ko biyar ?

Masana lissafi wajen neman amsar wannan tambaya sun bada cikakkiyar amsa mai ban sha’awa : Gaba shida a zane tafi dacewa wajen cikar fadin wurin da aka bayar.

Gaba shida na bukatar karancin yaukin da zata bukata wurin gina gidan zuman a yayin da zata taskace zuma mai yawa. Saboda haka ne kudan zuma ke amfani da wannan sifa a saukake. Hanyar da suke amfani da ita wurin gina gidan zuma akwai bada mamaki : kudajen zuma suna fara gina shuri ne a biyun –ukun wurare daban – daban sannan su saka ta a jikin biyun-ukun dogwayen shinge. Koda dai suna farawa ne ta wurare daban-daban, kudajen, a adadi mai yawan gaske, suke haduwa don kera wadannan gabobi shida sannan su sakata kuma su hada ta wuri guda da haduwa a tsakiya. Suzo su hade wadannan gabobin da ba zaka taba ganin alamun rabuwarsu ba.

arı, petek

Ta fuskar wannan kasaitaccen aiki ne, zamu tabbatar da wanzuwar iko madaukaki wanda ya tsara wadannan halittu da aikata haka. Masana juyin halitta suna son kawar da bayyana wannan cigaba ta hanayar amfani da kalmar ‘tabbata’ kuma suyi kokarin su nuna cewa ai wata sifa ce sassauka ga kudan zuma. Haka kuma, idan akwai tabbata a aiki, idan wannan tsari ya sha kan kudan zuma kuma ya samar da cewa dukkanin kudan zuma yana aiki hannu da hannu duk da cewa akwai kasaitacciyar hikima data tsara halittar wadannan kananan halittu.

Mu sanya kalmar ta fito fili, Ubangiji, mahaliccin wadannan kananan halittu, yayi musu « wahayi akan abinda zasu yi. » Alkur’ani ya tabbatar da wannan hujja karnuka goma sha hudu da suka wuce :

Kuma Ubangijinka Yayi wahayi zuwa ga kudan zuma cewa; Ka riki gidaje daga duwatsu, kuma daga itace, kuma daga abinda suke ginawa. Sannan kaci daga dukkan ‘ya’yan itace, saboda haka ki shiga hanyoyin Ubangijinki, suna horarru. Wani abin sha yana fita daga cikinsa akwai wata warkewa ga mutane. Lalle ne, a cikin wannan, hakika akwai ayoyi ga mutane wadanda suke yin tunani. (Suratun Nahl, 68-69)

Taswira Mai Ban Al’ajabi: Shurin Tururuwa

termit, termit evleri

Babu wanda zai iya yunkuri idan ya sha mamakin ganin shurin tururuwa a gine a kasa wanda tururuwai suka gina. Dalili kuwa shine shurin tururuwa gini ne mai ban al’ajabi wanda tsawonsa ya kai mita 5-6. a tsakanin shurin akwai nagartaccen tsarin dake kula da dukkan bukatunsu wanda ba zai taba sanyawa su fito cikin hasken rana ba, saboda yanayin jikinsu. A cikin shurin, akwai tagogi na shan iska, dakunan haihuwa, gidaje, farfajiyoyi, wurin samar da makarai na musamman, kofofi, dakunan zama lokacin zafi dana hunturu ; a takaice dai, akwai komai a ciki. Abinda wadannan tururuwan da suke gina wadannan shurika shine makafi ne 184

Duk da haka, zamu gani, idan muka kwatanta girman tururuwa da shurinta, cewa tururuwan sunyi nasarar gina wani gini wanda ya nunka su girma sama da sau 300.

Har ila yau suna da wata kasaitacciyar sifa: idan da zamu raba shurin gida biyu, gidan farko shine na ginin daga sama hanyoyin, dakunan da titunan sunyi kama da juna. Zasu cigaba da harkokinsu kamar basu taba rabuwa ba kuma an wajabta musu zama a wuri guda.

Woodpecker, Tsuntsu Mai Rarake Bishiya

ağaçkakan, güzel kuşlar

Kowa ya sani cewa woodpecker na gina makwabcinta ta hanyar rarake bishiya. Abinda mutane da yawa basa lura dashi shine yadda woodpecker bay a gamuwa da jirkitar kwakwalwa yayin da sassakewa da karfi da kansa. Abinda woodpecker yake yi yayi kama da mutumin da yake buga kusa a garu da kansa. Idan mutum zai samu kansa yana dukan kusa, lallai zai samu tabuwar kwakwalwa. Amma woodpecker, zai rarake bishiya mai kauri sau 38-43 tsakanin minti 2.10 da 2.69 kuma babu abinda ya same shi.

Babu abinda zai faru saboda an halicci kan woodpecker ne don yayi irin wannan aiki. Kwanyar woodpecker yana da wani irin tsari da yake rage ko jure karfin kaurin bishiyar. Yana da wasu tausasan kasusuwa na musamman a cikin kwanyar.185

Tsarin Tashin Jemage

yarasa, sonar sistem

Jemage yana tashi ne a cikin duhun dare ba tare da matsala ba kuma suna da tsarin tashi mai ban sha’awa. Shine abinda muke kira ‘Sonar system’, tsari ne wanda yake bambance abubuwan dake kewaye dasu ta hanyar karar kadawar sauti.

Saurayin mutum na iya jin sauti mai nisan kadawar sauti 20,000 a sakan daya. Jemage, ta wannan tsari na ‘Sonar system’ yana riskar nisan kadawar sauti kusan 50,000 da 20,000 a sakan daya. Tana aika wadannan saututtuka ne ta kowace fuska sau 20 ko 30 a sakan. Karfin jin sauti yana da karfin da jemage ba wai kawai zai fahimci kasancewar abu kusa dashi ba, amma yana gane inda abin yake da kadawarsa ko ta’ina.186

Whales

balina, büyük balıklar

Dabbobi masu shayarwa suna bukatar shekar numfashi kuma saboda haka ruwa ba wuri ne da ya dace da rayuwarsu ba. Dangane da kifi Whale, wanda itama dabba ce mai shayarwa, wannan matsala abar kulawa ce ta wani tsarin numfashi mai inganci fiye da wasu dabbobin da suke zaune aban kasa. Kifi Whales tana numfasawa waje a lokaci guda tare da fitar da kashi 90% na iskar da suke amfani da ita. Saboda haka, suna bukatar numfasawa a lokaci masi tsawo. A lokaci guda kuwa, suna da tsarin numfashin dabba wadda ake kira ‘myglobin’ yana taimaka musu wajen taskace iska a jikinsu. Da taimakon wannan tsari ne, kifi gin-back, misali, yana iya yin nitso tsawon mitoci 500 kuma ya zauna a ruwa har tsawon miniti 40 a bayanta yake sabanin dabbobi masu shayarwa aban kasa domin ta samu saukin numfasawa.

Tsarin Halittar Sauro : Gnat

sivri sinek, mucize

Muna daukar Sauro wata dabba ce mai tashi. A hakikani, sauro yana tafiyar da tsarin rayuwarsa a karkashin ruwa kuma ya fita daga ciki ta wani kebantaccen ‘tsari’ tare da dukkan wata gaba da zata amfane shi ta wannan fuska.

Sauro na fara tashi da wani tsarin na musamman a gabansa kuma dashi ne yake gano abincinsa. Ta wannan tsari ne, yake kama da jirgin yaki ami saukar ungulu wanda aka sanya masa na’urar gane zafi, iskar gas, wari da kamshi. Har ila yau, yana da ikon ‘gani tare kowane irin yanayi’ wanda yake taimakawa ya gano abincinsa komai duhu.

Dabarar ‘zukar jini’ a wurin sauro ta hanya mai ban mamaki. Yana dauke zartaye 6, dasu ne yake yanke fata kamar yadda zarto yake yanke katako. Yayin da yake yankawa, yana toshe hanyar jinin kuma mutum ma bai san ana zukar jininsa ba.

Wannan toshewa da yake yi, a wannan lokaci, tana tare zubar jini da cigaba da zukawa. Idan babu daya daga cikin wadannan zrtuna to ba zai iya zukar jini don ya cigaba da yaduwa ba.

Da wannan kebantattun sifofi nata ne, kankantar halittar ta take bayyana a matsayin wata aya dake nuna kasaitar halittarta. A kur’ani, an kawo misalin sauro don nuna wanzuwar Ubangiji ga mazaje masu hankali:

Hakika, Allah ba ya jin kunyar ya bayyana wani misali, kowane irir ne, sauro da abinda yake bisa gare shi. To, amma wadanda suka yi imani, sai su san cewa lalle shi ne gaskiya daga Ubangijinsu, kuma amma wadanda suka kafirta, sai suce: ‘Menene Allah yayi nufi da wannan ya zama misali?’ yana bukatar da wasu masu yawa dashi, kuma bay a batarwa dashi face fasikai. (Suratul Bakara, 26)

Tsuntsaye Mafarauta Masu Idon Hangen Nesa

kartal, kartal gözleri

Mafarautan tsuntsaye na da idanu karfafa wadanda suke taimaka musu su hango mafi wuri yayin da suke farautar abincinsu. Idanunsu manya kuma suna dauke da karfin kwayoyin da suke taimakwa gain, ma’ana dai suna gain sosai. Akwai kwayoyi sama da miliyan daya a idanun tsuntsayen.

Mikiya dake tashi sama tsawon dubban mitoci nada karfin idon da zai iya hangowa a kasa daga wannan nisan duniyar. Kamar dai jiragen yaki suke gano abokan gaba daga dubban mitoci, haka suma suke yiwa abincinsu, suna iya ganin launi komai kankantarsa ko kuma motsawarsa aban kasa. Idon mikiya na dauke a cibiyar maganai mikidari dubu uku kuma tana iya fadada abu sau shida ko takwas. Mikiya na fadada ganinta akan fili mai girman eka 30,000 yayin da take a sama tsawon mitoci 4,500. zasu iya bambance zomo dake boye a cikin ciyawa daga tsawon mitoci 1,500. ya tabbata cewa idon mikiya an halittar mata ne musamman saboda ita.

Zanen Gizo-gizo

dinopis, örümcek

Gizo-gizo mai suna Dinopis yak ware wajen iya farauta. Ba wai kawai yana sakar gidansa da jiran fadowar abincinsa ba, yana saka wata karamar igiya da yake jefawa akan abincinsa yayin da yake son kamawa. Bayan haka, nan da nan sai ta nannade abincinta da sakar. Kwaron data kama ba zai iya kubucewa ba. Sakar tayi sakuwar da idan kwaron yana kara dauruwa ita kuma tana kara shryuwa. Yayin da yake kokarin killace abincinsa, sai ya daure ta da wasu igiyoyin, kamar dai mai daure kaya idan zai tafiya.

Yaya wannan gzi-gizo yake kera saka mai tsarin sifa da fasahar kira? Yana da wahala ace gizo-gizo ya samu irin wannan fasaha kwatsam kamar yadda masanan suke da’awa. Gashi kuma gizo-gizo bashi da kwakwalwa balle ya koya ya haddace kuma ya rika yi yau da kullum.

örümcek, ağı

Babu shakka, wannan fasaha halittacciya ce akan gizo-gizo daga mahalicci, wato Allah, Mabuwayi a cikin ikonsa.

Muhimman mu’jizozi na nan a boye a jikin sakar gizo-gizo. Wannan zare, mai karancin siranta, yafi wayar karfe kwari sau biyar 950 wanda suke da kauri daya. Wata sifa da wannan zare yake dauke dashi shine duk jikinsa hasken fitila ne. zare mai irin wannan tsawo na iya zagaye duniya kuma nauyin ba zai wucve giram 320 ba.188 karfe, wanda ake samara dashi don aiki a masana’antu, daya ne daga cikin abubuwan da dan Adam yak era. Haka kuma, gizo-gizo na iya samarwa daga jikinsa zaren da yafi karfe karfi. Yayin da mutum yake samara da karfe, yana amfani dashi ne ta tsohon ilmi da fasahar Mutanen da; wane ilmi da fasaha gizo-gizo yake dashi yayin da yake samara da nasa zaren?

Kamar yadda muke gani, duk fasaha da dabarun da mutum yake da ita gizo-gizo ya barshi a baya.

Dabbobi Masu Jure Hunturu

Dabbobi masu jure hunturu suna rayuwa duk da yanayin jikinsu yana yin daidai da yanayin sanyin dake jikinsu. Ta kaka suke jure wannan?

Dabbobi masu shayarwa suna da dumin jiki. Ma’ana, a daidaitaccen yanayi karfin jikinsu yana daidaita saboda na’urar dake jikinsu tana jujjuyawa yadda zata tasfiyar da yanayin. Haka kuma, yayin hunturu, yanayin dumin jikin dabbobi masu shayarwa kamar, beran daji wanda yake da dakika 40, ya sauko kasa kadan sannan yahau kadan kai kace yana dauke ne da ma’auni. Zafin jikinsa sai yayi kasa sosai. Dabbar tana numfasawa ne a hankali har zuwa yadda take numfashi, sau 300 a minti guda, ya dawo sau 7-10 a minti daya. Yana iya tsayar da numfashinsa kuma kwakwalwarsa ta cigaba da aiki a hankali har zuwa wani mikidari.

Daya daga cikin lokacin hunturu nan da nan sai iskar kankara ta tafiyar dashi. Dabbobi masu jure hunturu suna samun kariya daga irin wannan hadari, madallah da irin wadannan sifofi kayatattu da suke dauke dashi. Gumin dake fitowa daga jikinsu yana shigewa ne cikin sunadarai su kara musukarfi. Saboda haka, jin sanyinsu na raguwa kuma suna samun kariya daga duk wani hadari.189

Kifi Mai Fitila

somon balığı,somon göç

Wasu jinsunan kifaye kamar kifi eel da thornback ray suna amfani da wutar dake jikinsu (na’ura) ko dai su kare kansu daga farmakin abokan gaba ko su tade abincinsu. A kowace halitta mai rai – har da mutum – akwai na’ura kadan jikinsa. Sai dai mutum ba zai karkatar da ta sa ko ya juya ta saboda wata bukata ba. Halittun da muka ambata a sama, a daya hannun, suna dauke da na’uara mai yawa kamar 500 zuwa nauyi 600 a jikinsu kuma suna iya amfani dasu akan abokan gabarsu. Haka kuma, bata yi musu komai.

Suna mayar da karfin da suke yin amfani dashi wajen kare kansu bayan wasu lokauta kamar cajin baturi kuma sai sucigaba da mafani da abinsu. Kifin baya mafani da na’urar jikinsa kawai saboda kariya. Suna amfani dashi don gane hanya acan karkashin ruwa mai duhu, yana taimakwa wajen jin tafiyar wani abu ba tare da sunga abin ba. Suna aika sako da na’urar jikinsu. Wannan sako yana zuwa ne a lokacin da suka taba sandararran abu, sai ya kai musu sakon cewar wannan abu kaza ne. Suna gane nisa da girman abin.190

Kyakkyawan Tsari Ga Dabbobi : Buya

Daya daga cikin sifofin dabbobi wajen kare kansu shine boye kansu – wato, ‘Buya’.

Buya ya zama wajibi ga dabbobi saboda dalilai biyu : saboda farauta da kare kansu daga farmakui. Buya tare da amfani da duk wata hanya da zata taimaka ta fuskar dabara, kwarewa, kuzari da nutsuwa.

A sama kwarin bishiya suna sajewa da jikin bishiya. Dama daga sama: Maciji: yana boye kansa a cikin dogwayen ganye. Dama daga kasa: kwaro Caterpilla ya zauna a tsakiyar ganye don kada a gane shi.

Dabarar buya ga dabbobi tana da al’ajabin gaske. Kusan da wahala ka iya gane kwaron da ya buya jikin tumbar itace ko wata halittar dake buya karkashin ganye. Kwaron ganye na shan rowan zakin shuka wadanda suke ciyar da kansu dashi ta hanyar zama kamar a jikin shukar suke. Ta wannan hanya ce, suke yaudarar tsuntsaye, manyan abokan gabarsu, da tabbatar da cewar tsuntsayen basu zauna a jikin bishiyoyin ba.

yılan kamuflaj, tırtıl kamuflaj

Left: A snake concealing itself by suspending itself among leaves.

Right: A caterpillar settled right in the middle of a leaf to go unnoticed.

 

camouflage_flatfish_frog

Left: Flat Fish

Right: Frogs (palmate to paradoxophyl)

Kifi Mai Zarto

Karkashin fatar jikin kifi mai zarto akwai wata fata mai laushi tare da harza a jiki mai suna chromatophores. Yawanci launin dorawa, ja ,baki da makuba gareshi. A wani lokaci, fatar sai tayi fadi kuma ta cika jikinta da inuwa. A haja ne kifin yake canza launi akan dutsen da ya tsaya kuma sai ya saje kamar dutsen.

Wannan tsari na tafiya wanda wani lokaci ma kifin na canza sifarsa kamar launin jakin dawa.191

Hanyoyin Gani Iri – iri

balık, denizaltı

Ga mafi yawan dabbobin dake ruwa, gain abu ne mai muhimmanci sosai saboda farauta da tsaro. Haka kuma, suna dauke da ido wanda aka yi musu na musamman saboda zama a ruwa.

A karkashin ruwa, dammar gain tana tsayawa izuwa nisan mitoci 30 ne. halittun da suke can karkashin ruwa, suma suna da idon da ya dace a zamansu a wannan wuri.

Dabbobin ruwa, ba kamar dabbobi masu zama aban kasa ba, kwayar idonsu na dauke da makaran da suke hana ruwa shiga idonsu kuma su biya musu dukkan bukatunsu na zaman ruwa. Idan aka kwatanta idanunsu dana dabbobin kasa, nasu yana da fadi (wato kwayar idonsu); kuma yana taimaka musu wajen ganin abu komai nisansa sai su ganshi a kusa. Idan suka ga abu a wuri mai nisa sai kwayar idon ta koma ciki tare da taimakon wasu gabbai na musamman a cikin idon, sai suga girmansa kuma su gane ko menene.

Dalilin da yasa idonsu yake da irin wannan sifa shine hasken da yakebwatsa ganinsa a ruwa. Saboda cikin idon akwai wani abu mai kama da ruwa, baya baza haske a yayin da yake ganin wanii abu a wajen idonsa. Haka kuma, sai kwayar idonsa. Kifi, ba kamar dan Adam ba, yana gain sosai a cikin ruwa.

Wasu dabbobi kamar kunamar ruwa tana da manyan idanu saboda ya cike gurbin raunin ganinta acan karkashin ruwa. Kasa da mitoci 300, kifi mai manyan idanu na bukatar ya riski hasken gabansa kafin ya gane abinda yake gabansa. Sai dai sune da wasu majiyai masu amfani da kadawar hasken shudin launin dake fitowa a cikin ruwa. Saboda wannan ne, yasa akwai tulin irin wadannan haske a jikin idanunsu.

Kamar yadda aka fahimta daga wadannan misalai, kowance halitta mai rai tana da idanu wadanda suka dace da irin bukatunta. Wannan hujja itace ta tabbatar mana da cewa duk halittarsu akai kamar yadda suke daga mahalicci mai wanzajjiyar hikima. Ilmi da kasaitar iko.

Hanyar daskarewa Ta Musamman

Kwado mai daskarewa yana kunshe ne da sifofi baki. Bata nuna alamun rayuwa. Bugawar zuciyarta, numfashi da kewayar jinni tsaya suke cak. Yayin da kankarar jikinsa, sai kwadon ya dawo hayyacinsa kamar wanda ya tashi daga barci.

Yawanci, rayayyun halittu wadanda suke daskarewa suna fuskantar barazana masi hadari. Amma wannan sifar dake tara masa sunadarin glucose mai yawa a halin da yake daskarewa. Kamar dai suga, sugan da yake jikinsa yana da yawa. Yakan kai wani lokaci milimo 550 a lita daya.(wannan adadi yana kaiwa milimo 1-5 a lita daya a jikin kwadi kuma a jikin mutane milimo 4-5 a lita daya. Yawansa yana iya jawo babbar matsala a jiki a lokuta da dama.

A jikin kwado mai daskarewa, wannan sunadari na rike ruwa a jikin kwayoyin halitta kuma yak are fitarsa. Kwayoyin dake jikin fatar suna taimakawa sunadarin glucose bazuwa cikin sauki. Kuma yawansa ne yake sanya jikinsa ya rage hucin dake haifar da canjin dake afkuwa a cikin jikinsa na daga ruwa izuwa kankara. Bincike ya nuna cewa sunadarin na glucose zai ya zama a daskararren kwayoyin halitta. A wannan lokaci ne, bayan ya zama rowan jiki, yana kuma tsayar da gudanar jujjuyawar ruwa da abinci don kada suyi saurin narkewa su fita.

Ta ina irin wannan sunadari mai yawan gasket ya samu ne kwatsam? Amsar na da ban sha’awa : wannan wata halitta ce da aka shirya mata wadannan kayan aiki na musamman don su gudanar da haka. Yayin da kankara ta sauka a fatar jikinsa, sai sako ya tafi cikin hanta. Ya sanar da ita cewa ta cewa ta juyar da wasu daga cikin sunadaran glycogen dinta zuwa sunadarain glucose.Yana tafiyar wannan sako zuwa hanta abu ne boyayye. Minti biyar da zuwan sakon, sai yawan sukarin dake cikin jininsa ya rika karuwa.192

Ba tare da tambaya ba dabbar da aka sanya mata irin wadannan kayan aikin dake canza yanayinta don ta jure da yanayin da zata samu kanta a ciki a yayin da hakan ta faru ta hanyar tsarin da babu karyewa na mahalicci kuma mabuwayi. Babu wani haduwar yanayin da zai iya samar da irin wannan hadadden tsarin.

Tsuntsu Albatrosse

albatros, göçmen kuşlar

suntsayen da suke yawan hijira suna takaice yawan fitar kuzarinsu ta hanayar amfani da wasu “dabarun tashi”. Tsuntsaye Albatros an gano suna da irin wannan tsari. Wadannan tsuntsaye, wadda take yin kashi 92% na rayuwarta akan teku, tana da fuka-fuki mai tsawon mitoci 3.5. mafi muhimmanci daga sifofin albatross shine tsarin tashi: suna iya yawo a sama sa’o’I masu yawa ba tare da sun kada fuka-fukansu ba. Abinda suke, sai su bude fuka-fukansu a cikin iska cak ta hanyar amfani da iskar.

Saboda haka, basa bukatar suyi amfani da karfin gabbansu yayin da suke sama. Domin jijiyoyin dake jikinsu sune suke daga fuka-fukans. Kuma wannan yana taimakawa wajen tashinsa. Tsarin na rage yawan amfani da kuzarinsu wajen tashi. Albatross baya amfani da kuzarin saboda bay a kada fuka-fukansa, yana ta yawo a sama ba tare da ya karar da kuzarin ba. Misali, albatross mai nauyin kilo 10 na rasa kashi 1% na nauyin jikinsa yayin da yake tafiyar kilo mita1,000. Lallai kuwa kadan ne. Mutum ya kera karamin jirgi mara inji ta hanyar kwaikwayo da ganin irin yadda take da irin wannan dabara ta tashi.193

Hijira Mai Ban Ta’ajibi

cuttlefish

Left: A cuttlefish that makes itself look like the sandy surface. Right: The bright yellow colour the same fish turns in case of danger, such as when it is seen by a diver.

Kifi Salmon yana da wasu kebantattun sifofi yayin da yake komawa ruwa don kyankyasar kwaikwaye. Bayan ya dauki mafi yawan lokutansa a teku, sai su taho rowan kogi don suyi kyankyasa.

Idan suka fara yin tafiya a lokacin bazara, launin jikinsu a lokacin ja ne madaukaki. Amma a karshen tafiyar, launinsu sai ya koma baki. Yayin tafiyar, sai su rika bin gefen ruwa don su tarar da koguna suyi ta kokarin komowa mahaifarsu. Suna isa inda suka haihu ta hanyar juyin igiyar ruwa da zaburarsa da ambaliyarsa. A karshen wannan hijira ta kilo mita 3,500 – 4,000, tuni matayensu sun tara kwai su kuma mazajen sun samu rowan maniyyi. Suna isa wurin sai su fitar da kwai, sukan fitar da kwaikwaye 3,000 zuwa 5,000 su kuma mazajen sai su kyankyasa su. Kifin na fuskantar mutuwa a yayin hijirarsa da lokacin kyankyasa. Matayen dake fitar da kwan sukan gaji, kayoyin jelarsu kan fita kuma fatar jikinsu ta koma baka. Haka al’amarin yake faruwa ga mazajensu. Sai kaga kogi na ta yawo da matattunsu. Duk da haka wadansu na tasowa kuma an kyankyasar da wasu.

Yadda Salmon yake wannan hijira, yadda suke zuwa cikin teku bayan sunyi kyankyasa, da yadda suke gane hanyarsu ta komowa gida wadansu ‘yan tambayoyi ne da ake jiran amsarsu. Koda yake an yi ta zace-zace, amma babu tartibiyar amsa akan haka. Wane irin iko ne yake tafiyar da salmon kuma ya dawo dashi daga tafiyar dubban kilo mita zuwa wurin da basu sani ba.? Babu shakka akwai wmadaukain iko dake juya wadannan rayayyun halittu. Shine Allah, majibincin dukkanin duniyoyi.

Koalas

koala, okaliptus

Man dake fitowa daga ganysyyskin bishiyar eucalyptus guba ne ga dabbobi masu shayarwa. Wannan guba wata hanya ce ta kariya daga abokan gabar wannan bishiya. Duk da haka akwai kebantattun halittun da suke morewa da cin wannan gubar don su rayu: wata dabba ce mai suna koala. Suna yin gidajensu a wannan bishiya yayin da suke ci daga jikinta su kuma sha daga jikinta.

Kamar sauran dabbobi, koala bata iya narkar da sunadaran dake jikin ganyayyakin data ci ba. Saboda haka, tana dogara ne akan wasu kwayoyin halittu masu narkar da abincin. Wadannan kwayoyi suna da yawan gasket a cikin karsmin hanji da babba, wani abu wai shi caecum wanda kari ne a jikin tsarin hanjin. Caecum din shine wuri mafi kayatarwa a sashen narkar da abinci a cikin koala. Yana aiki ne a matsayin cibiyar tattara abinci inda ake sanya wadannan kwayoyi su narkar da sunadaran yayin da ake dakatar da wucewar ganyayyakin. Domin koala ta samu dammar amfanar nan dake jikin gubar ganyayyakin eucalyptus.194

Damar Farauta A Wuri Daya

Shukar Afrika ta kudu mai suna Sundew tana kama kwari da maganadisun gashin jikinta. Ganyen dake jikin shukar suna da tswo, ga jan launi. Kan gashin akwai wani wuri mai yauki dake fitowa wanda yake da kamshi kuma kamshinsa ne yake jawo kwari su sauka jikinta. Wata sifa ta wannan ruwa mai yauki shine yana da danko sosai.

 

Yayin da wani kwaro ya tafi jikinta saboda kamshin da ya kawo shi sai ya makale a jikin dankon. Nan da nan sai ganyen ya rufe kasa akan kwaron da ya makale kuma shukar sai ta fitar da duk irin sunadaran da take bukata a jikin kwaron bayan ta mutstsuke shi a jikinta.195

Shukar dake dauke da irin wannan fasaha gashi bata motsawa daga wurinta babu shakka wata shaida ce tat sari na musamman. Abu ne mai wahala ace shuka ta samu irin wannan dabara ta farauta daga cikin hankalinta ko ikonta, ko kuma haka nan dabara tazo mata. Haka kuma, yana da wahala mutum ya rufe idonsa ga barin wanzuwar kadaitaccen mahalicci wanda ya sanya mata irin wannan aiki.

sundew bitkisi, avcı bitkiler

Hagu: Budadden Sundew. Dama: Rufaffe

Zanen Dake Jikin Fuka-fukan Tsuntsaye

haverengi basilisk, suda yürüyen canlı

The basilisk lizard is one of those rare animals that can move establishing a balance between water and air.

A kallon farko, zaka ga tsuntsaye kamar suna dauke da sifofi saukaka. Amma idan muka yi nazarinsu, zamu riski gashinsu basu da nauyi amma kwari kuma suna jure ruwa, don baya bata su.

Tsuntsaye na samun saukin tashi sama saboda rashin nauyinsdu. Gashin fuka-fukan an yi sune daga sunadaran keratin. A dukkan bangarori biyun silin gashi akwai lifafa, daga jikin kowace lifafa akwai siraran zarurruka 400. a jikin zarurrukan 400 akwai kananan lifafai 800 wadanda suka rufe silin gashin karamin tsuntsu, wadanda kuma suke a bangaren gaba suna da lifafai 20 a kowannensu. Wadannan lifafai sune suke hade silin gashi daya zuwa nwani kamar dai yadda yanki yake hade jikin dan uwansa. A jikin silin gashi akwai akalla kananan lifafai miliyan 300. Adadin lifafan dake jikin fuka-fukin tsuntsu sun kai kusan biliyan 700.

Akwai hikima da karfin dalilin da yasa gashin fuka-fukin tsuntsu zasu zama a hade da juna tare da irin wadannan lifafai da matokarai. Dole su zama a hade da juna don su rika faduwa a kowane motsi. Ya zamana sun tamke yadda karfin iska, ruwan sama ko kurar iskar sanyi ba zata sa su fadi ba.

Haka kuma, gashin dake cikin tsuntsu ba iri daya bane dana jikin fuka-fuki dana jela. Gashin jikin jela suna da girman da suke aiki kamar makari ko ince birki ; su kuwa na fuka-fuki an tsara su don su rika budewa suna bugun iska yayin da su kuma su kuma su kara karfin tashi yayin da suka zo mikewa.
Basilisk : Kwararre Mai Tafiya A Ruwa

Wasu tsirarun dabbobi na tafiya akan ruwa. Kamar basilisk, wanda ake gani anan sama irinsu ne suke raye a Amurka ta tsakiya. A gefen duga-dugin kafarsu akwai yatsun da suke sanya kafarsu fantsama ruwa. Suna tankwashe su a yayin da take tafiya akan kasa. Idan wannan dabba ta fuskanci hadari, sai ta fara gudu akan ruwa. Sannan sai ta bude yatsun don ta samu ikon gudu sosai akan ruwa.196

Wannan kadaitaccen tsarin basilisk daya ne daga cikin alamomin Halittar kasaitaccen mahalicci.

Photosynthesis

fotosentez, yaprak

Tsirrai na taka muhimmiyar rawa wajen kawata duniya da zama mazauni da za’a iya rayuwa. Sune suke gyara mana iska, suke zaunar da yanayin sararin sama da daidaita fitar iskkokin sunadarai a sararin duniya. Iskar Oxygen da muke shaka tsirrai ne suke samara da ita. Muhimman abincin da muke ci sune suke samarwa.

Sunadaran gina jikin tsirrai suna fitowa ne ta wani tsari na musamman a cikin kwayoyin jikinsu wanda tan an ne dukkan komai nasu yake fitowa.

Kwayoyin tsirrai, sabanin na mutane da dabbobi, suna iya aiki kai tsaye ne da rana. Sai su mayar da sunadaran da suka diba daga rana zuwa kwayoyi su taskace su a jikinsu ta wata irin tsari na musamman. Wannan tsari shine ake kira “photosynthesis”.

fotosentez,

1. energy
2. food

3. oxygen
4. Carbon Dioxide

In the microscopic factories of plants, a miraculous transformation takes place. With the energy from the Sun, they perform photosynthesis, which in turn supplies the energy needs of animals and eventually, human beings.

Hakika, wannan tsari yana tafiya ne ba ta wadannan kwayoyin ba amma ta chloroplast, da wasu gabbansa da suke bawa tsirran koren launi. Wadannan kananan korayen gabbai ana iya ganinsu net a cikin na’urar hangen nesa, kuma sune kadai a fadin duniya suke iya taskace hasken rana a cikin kwayoyin halittar sunadaran.

Yawan adadin kwayoyin halittar da tsirran suke samarwa aban kasa ya kai tan biliyan 200 a shekara. Wannan samarwa na da matukar amfani ga dukkan ababan halittar da suke raye aban kasa. Kuma ana riskar hakan ta wani hadadden tsarin sunadarai. Dubban kwayoyin “chlorophyll” dake cikin chloroplast sune suke lura da haske a dan kankanin lokaci, kusan kace dubbai a cikin sakan daya. Shi yasa abubuwa da yawa suke faruwa a cikin chlorophyll din ba’a iya sani da kuma gani.

Canza hasken rana zuwa nau’ra ko sunadarai wata sabuwar fasaha ce da ta bullo. Yadda ake yi kuwa, sai anyi amfani da manyan na’urori. Amma kalli kwayoyin tsirrai ga kankantar da ba’a iya ganinsu da ido kiri da muzu, suna yin wannan aiki shekaru miliyoyi masu yawa.

Wannan kyakkyawan tsari na nuna kasaitar halitta don kowa ya gain. Wannan hadadden tsari na photosynthesis kasaitaccen shiri ne wanda Ubangiji ya halitta. Masana’antar da babu irinta a dan karamin wuri a cikin ganyayyaki. Irin wannan tsari daya ne daga ayoyi da suke bayyana cewa dukkan ababan halitta halittar Ubangiji ce, majibincin dukkan duniyoyi.

 

Footnotes

184 Bilim ve Teknik, July 1989, Vol. 22, No.260, sh.59

185 Grzimeks Tierleben Vögel 3, Deutscher Taschen Buch Verlag, Oktober 1993, sh.92

186 David Attenborough, Life On Earth: A Natural History, Collins British Broadcasting Corporation, June 1979, sh.236

187 David Attenborough, Life On Earth: A Natural History, Collins British Broadcasting Corporation, June 1979, sh.240

188 "The Structure and Properties of Spider Silk", Endeavour, January 1986, vol. 10, sh.37-43

189 Görsel Bilim ve Teknik Ansiklopedisi, sh.185-186

190 WalterMetzner, http://cnas.ucr.edu/ ~bio/ faculty/Metzner.html

191 National Geographic, September 1995, sh.98 192 Bilim ve Teknik, January 1990, pp.10-12

193 David Attenborough, Life of Birds, Princeton Universitye Press, Princeton-New Jersey, 1998, sh.47

194 James L.Gould, Carol Grant Gould, Life at the Edge, W.H.Freeman and Company, 1989, sh.130-136

195 David Attenborough, The Private Life of Plants, Princeton Universitye Press, Princeton-New Jersey, 1995, sh.81-83

196 Encyclopedia of Reptiles and Amphibians, Published in the United States by Academic Press, A Division of Harcourt Brace and Company, p.35

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